T.U. B.Sc. 1st Year General Microbiology Latest Syllabus (Nepal)

T.U. B.Sc. 1st Year General Microbiology Syllabus and Notes Link

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Description of the Course

Course Title: General Microbiology

Course No: MB 101 (Major)

Nature of the Course: Theory

Full Marks: 100

Pass Marks: 35

Year: I

Total Lecture Hours: 150

Course Objectives

After completion of the course, the students will be able to:

a) understand the concept of microorganisms, history of microbiology, classification schemes and the nomenclature of microorganisms, scope, and applications of microbiology

b) know handling methods, growth, physiology, metabolism, genetics of microorganisms

c) understand the basics of bacteriology, virology, mycology, and parasitology

Course Contents

History and development of microbiology– 4hrs

Development of microbiology with reference to the modern era, important discoveries, theories of spontaneous generation and the germ theory of disease (Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch)

Classification and nomenclature of microorganisms- 15hrs

Classification schemes of a living organism, differential characteristics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganism. The general principle of nomenclature, three and five-kingdom concepts, a basic understanding of the classification of bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa, classification, nomenclature and characterization of bacteria according to Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology

Scope and applications of microbiology– 7hrs

Harmful and beneficial microorganism; applied microbiology (medical, public health, agricultural, food, microbial biotechnology, environmental, industrial, pharmaceutical microbiology)

Morphology of bacteria– 10hrs

Structure of bacteria, morphology and fine structure of cell organelles, differences between gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria

Growth and physiology of bacteria- 8hrs

Nutritional types of bacteria (photolithotrophic, chemolithotrophic, photoorganotrophic, chemoorganotrophic), entry of nutrients, passive and active transport, bacterial growth, growth curve, factors affecting the growth

Isolation, enumeration, and culture of bacteria- 10hrs

Types of bacteriological culture medium, techniques for isolation and enumeration of bacteria (streak plate technique, pour plate technique, spread plate technique, membrane filtration, most probable number method, direct microscopic count), biochemical tests of bacteria, methods of the culture of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, culture preservation methods

Metabolism- 15hrs

Introduction to metabolism, regulation, and energy involved in glycolysis (Embden Mayerhoff Paranas pathway), glycogenesis, glycogenolysis, TCA cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, Entner Doudoroff’s pathway, phosphoketolase pathway, fermentative pathways, and electron transport system

Microbial genetics- 15hrs

Structure and function of prokaryotic DNA, genetic code, plasmids, concepts of bacterial genetics and role of RNA & DNA; bacterial recombination (transformation, conjugation, and transduction), types and importance of mutation

Microscopy and different techniques of handling of microorganisms- 8hrs

Microscopes (light, stereo, darkfield, phase contrast, electron, fluorescence), types of staining and nature of dyes/stains, different types of staining methods for microorganisms, aseptic techniques in microbiology

Techniques in control of microorganisms 12hrs

Principles, procedures and applications of disinfection and sterilization-temperature, irradiation, ultrasonication, filtration, chemicals, antibiotics, and chemotherapeutic agents

Host-parasite interaction 10hrs

Normal microbial flora of the human body, the concept of host-parasite relationship, the concept of immunity

Introduction to virology- 12hrs

General structure (size, symmetry, and shape) of the virus, classification schemes, viral genetics, detection, enumeration (plaque assay, haemagglutination test, quantitative PCR, neutralization test), cultivation of viruses

Introduction to parasitology- 12hrs

Origin, morphology and classification of parasites (blood, tissue, intestinal parasites, soil-transmitted helminths, and nematodes), techniques of detection, enumeration and identification of protozoan and helminthic parasites

Introduction to mycology- 12hrs

Origin, morphology, and medical classification of fungi. Techniques of isolation, morphological identification, culture, and enumeration of yeast and mold

Recommended Readings


1. Collins CH, Patricia M, and Lyne JM (1995). Collins and Lynes Microbiological Methods 7th edition. Grange, Butter Worth, Oxford.
2. Cappucino JG and Sherman N (1996). Microbiology, A Laboratory Manual 4th edition. Benjamin Cumings Inc. California.
3. Pelczar MJ, Chan ECS and Krieg NR (1993). Microbiology 5th edition, Tata McGraw Hill.
4. Madigan MT, Martinko JM and Parker J (2012). Brock Biology of Microorganism, 11th edition Prentice Hall International Inc. London.

Reference books

1. Atlas RN (1984). Microbiology: Fundamental and Applications. Memillan Co.
2. Greenwood D, Richard CD, John S and Peuther F (1992). Medical Microbiology, 16th edition. ELBS, Churchill living stone.


Tribhuvan University. Institute of Science and Technology. 4 year’s Bachelors of Science Revised Course of Study. Dean’s Office, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal.

About Author

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Sagar Aryal

Sagar Aryal is a microbiologist and a scientific blogger. He is doing his Ph.D. at the Central Department of Microbiology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal. He was awarded the DAAD Research Grant to conduct part of his Ph.D. research work for two years (2019-2021) at Helmholtz-Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland (HIPS), Saarbrucken, Germany. Sagar is interested in research on actinobacteria, myxobacteria, and natural products. He is the Research Head of the Department of Natural Products, Kathmandu Research Institute for Biological Sciences (KRIBS), Lalitpur, Nepal. Sagar has more than ten years of experience in blogging, content writing, and SEO. Sagar was awarded the SfAM Communications Award 2015: Professional Communicator Category from the Society for Applied Microbiology (Now: Applied Microbiology International), Cambridge, United Kingdom (UK). Sagar is also the ASM Young Ambassador to Nepal for the American Society for Microbiology since 2023 onwards.

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