Phases of Clinical Trials for Drugs and Vaccine Development

Phases of Clinical Trials for Drugs and Vaccine Development

In clinical research, clinical trials are a type of research experiment done on people aiming at finding a solution to a disease. These trials include studies of diagnostic tests, treatments, and monitoring and evaluation of the human health outcomes. The interventions of clinical trials include: Drugs Vaccines Biological products Surgical and radiation procedures Medical devices Preventive treatment (vaccines) Behavioral treatment. …

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8 differences between Isolation and Quarantine

Isolation vs Quarantine

Introduction This century alone, the world has faced localized and disseminated epidemics and pandemics, that have redefined science and the aspects of prevention and control of very infectious and contagious diseases. These characteristic diseases have a high infectivity rate and they spread rapidly, enhanced by human-human contact. Most of these infections are caused by viruses, some that are common and …

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Epidemic vs Pandemic with Definition and Examples

Epidemic vs Pandemic with Definition and Examples

The occurrence of COVID-19 has resurrected terminologies that are rarely used practically. The theoretical understanding of epidemiological terms i.e Epidemic, Endemic, and the pandemic have been in a class of Biology or Microbiology where you are taught what these terms represent when it comes to a disease spread. However, lately, the globe has been made to understand and differentiate what …

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Pandemic- definition, features, causes, effects, examples

Pandemic- definition, features, causes, effects, examples

Pandemic Definition The word pandemic comes from the Greek pandemos meaning “pertaining to all people.” The Greek word pan means “all” and the Greek word demos means “people.” An epidemic usually affecting a large proportion of the population, occurring over a wide geographic area such as a section of a nation, the entire nation, a continent or the world is called a pandemic. It is the …

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Outbreak Investigations- Objectives, Steps, Difficulties

Outbreak Investigations- Objectives, Steps, Difficulties

Outbreak Investigations- Objectives, Steps, Difficulties An outbreak is an increased frequency of a disease above the usual rate (endemic rate) in a given population or geographic area. Usually, the cases are presumed to have a common cause or to be related to one another in some way. Image Source: Clipart Station Why should we investigate outbreaks? The outbreak investigation is …

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Disease Control

Disease Control

Disease Control Control of communicable diseases, which implies reducing their occurrence, has always been a major public health priority. In the past, control measures were based on incomplete knowledge of the epidemiology of the disease to be controlled and were directed at perceived factors of disease causation. As knowledge of the epidemiology of diseases improved, and with the development of …

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Descriptive Studies- Types, Applications, Advantages, Limitations

Descriptive Studies- Types, Applications, Advantages, Limitations

A simple description of the health status of a community, based on routinely available data or on data obtained in special surveys, is often the first step in an epidemiological investigation. Such a study is termed as a descriptive study. A descriptive study – as the name implies – describes the distributions of disease, injury or health in a population, outlining the burden of …

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Error- Types, Sources and Control

Error- Types, Sources and Control

All epidemiological studies are mostly attempting to establish the presence or absence of a causal relationship, and the results are an estimate of the actual effect or degree of association. All studies are subject to error, which can obscure or minimize the truth- the size and nature of a causal relationship. Understanding common errors and the means to reduce them …

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Types of Bias in Epidemiology

Common Types of Bias

Types of Bias in Epidemiology Any trend in the collection, analysis, interpretation, publication, or review of data that can lead to conclusions that are systematically different from the truth can be termed as bias. Bias is a major consideration in any type of epidemiologic study design. It has been defined as “any systematic error in the design, conduct or analysis …

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Field Trials

Field Trials

Field Trials Experimental studies set out to alter, rather than just observe, relevant exposures of interest, and to assess over time their impact on health status or disease outcomes.  The field trial is the one such type of interventional study designed to evaluate prevention strategies. They are studies carried out “on the ground” or “on the field”, in people not admitted to …

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