Scope of Epidemiology

Scope of Epidemiology

Scope of Epidemiology Epidemiology is defined as “the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations, and application of this study to control of health problems.” Epidemiological studies include observation, surveillance, hypothesis‐testing analytic research methods, and experiments. For many years epidemiology was considered to be restricted to the infectious … Read moreScope of Epidemiology

Epidemiological Markers

Phenotypic and Genetic Markers

Epidemiological Markers Epidemiological markers are biological markers that are used to characterize microorganisms or discriminate between genomes based on the genetic variation among microbial isolates. Uses of Epidemiological Markers Epidemiological markers are mostly used for strain typing. It is used to: Classify isolates of microorganisms Catalogue genetic variation Define relatedness or lack of it between … Read moreEpidemiological Markers

Source and Reservoir of Infection

Source and Reservoir of Infection

Source and Reservoir of Infection The starting point for the occurrence of a communicable disease is the existence of a reservoir or source of infection. The source of infection is defined as “the person, animal, object or substance from which an infectious agent passes or is disseminated to the host (immediate source).” The reservoir is … Read moreSource and Reservoir of Infection

Epidemic- Causes, Types, and Response

Epidemic- Causes, Types, and Response

Epidemic- Causes, Types, and Response An epidemic is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. According to modern concepts, an epidemic is defined as the occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illness or other health-related events … Read moreEpidemic- Causes, Types, and Response

Endemic Diseases

Endemic Diseases

Endemic Diseases Communicable diseases are termed endemic when they have a relatively stable pattern of occurrence in a given geographical area or population group at the relatively high prevalence and incidence. It refers to the constant presence of a disease or infectious agent within a given geographic area or population group, without importation from outside. … Read moreEndemic Diseases

Disease Prevention

Disease Prevention

Disease Prevention Disease prevention is a procedure through which individuals, those with risk factors for a disease or without the risk factors, are treated in order to prevent a disease from occurring. Treatment normally begins either before signs and symptoms of the disease occur, or shortly thereafter. Prevention includes a wide range of activities — … Read moreDisease Prevention

Cross-Sectional Study

Cross-Sectional Study

Cross-Sectional Study A cross-sectional study (also known as a cross-sectional analysis, transverse study, prevalence study) is a type of observational study that analyzes data from a population, or a representative subset, at a specific point in time. It examines the relationship between diseases (or other health-related states) and other variables of interest as they exist in a defined population at a single … Read moreCross-Sectional Study

Theories of Disease

Theories of Disease

Theories of Disease A disorder of structure or function in a human, animal, or plant, especially one that produces specific signs and symptoms or that affects a specific location and is not simply a direct result of physical injury is called a disease. It is a particular abnormal, pathological condition that affects part or all of … Read moreTheories of Disease

Branches of Epidemiology

Branches of Epidemiology

Epidemiology is the study of how the disease is distributed in populations and the factors that influence or determine this distribution. It is defined as “the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations and the application of this study to control of health problems.” Information from epidemiologic studies … Read moreBranches of Epidemiology

Epidemiology- History, Objectives and Types

Epidemiology- History, Objectives and Types

Epidemiology- History, Objectives and Types Epidemiology, as defined by Last, is “the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to the prevention and control of health problems”. Epidemiologists are concerned not only with death, illness, and disability, but also with more positive … Read moreEpidemiology- History, Objectives and Types