Epidemic vs Pandemic with Definition and Examples

Epidemic vs Pandemic with Definition and Examples

The occurrence of COVID-19 has resurrected terminologies that are rarely used practically. The theoretical understanding of epidemiological terms i.e Epidemic, Endemic, and the pandemic have been in a class of Biology or Microbiology where you are taught what these terms … Read more

Pandemic- definition, features, causes, effects, examples

Pandemic- definition, features, causes, effects, examples

Pandemic Definition The word pandemic comes from the Greek pandemos meaning “pertaining to all people.” The Greek word pan means “all” and the Greek word demos means “people.” An epidemic usually affecting a large proportion of the population, occurring over a wide geographic area such as … Read more

Epidemiological Markers

Phenotypic and Genetic Markers

Epidemiological markers are biological markers that are used to characterize microorganisms or discriminate between genomes based on the genetic variation among microbial isolates. Uses of Epidemiological Markers Epidemiological markers are mostly used for strain typing. It is used to: Classify … Read more

Disease Control

Disease Control

Disease Control Control of communicable diseases, which implies reducing their occurrence, has always been a major public health priority. In the past, control measures were based on incomplete knowledge of the epidemiology of the disease to be controlled and were … Read more

Error- Types, Sources and Control

Error- Types, Sources and Control

All epidemiological studies are mostly attempting to establish the presence or absence of a causal relationship, and the results are an estimate of the actual effect or degree of association. All studies are subject to error, which can obscure or … Read more

Types of Bias in Epidemiology

Common Types of Bias

Any trend in the collection, analysis, interpretation, publication, or review of data that can lead to conclusions that are systematically different from the truth can be termed as bias. Bias is a major consideration in any type of epidemiologic study … Read more

Field Trials

Field Trials

Experimental studies set out to alter, rather than just observe, relevant exposures of interest, and to assess over time their impact on health status or disease outcomes.  The field trial is the one such type of interventional study designed to … Read more

Predictive Value

Predictive Value

There are arguably two kinds of tests used for assessing people’s health: diagnostic tests and screening tests. screening tests typically have advantages over diagnostic tests such as placing fewer demands on the healthcare system and being more accessible as well … Read more

Mode of Transmission of Diseases

Mode of Transmission of Diseases

The traditional epidemiologic triad model holds that infectious diseases result from the interaction of agent, host, and environment. More specifically, transmission occurs when the agent leaves its reservoir or host through a portal of exit, is conveyed by some mode of transmission, and enters … Read more

Epidemiologic Triad- Agent, Host, Environment

Epidemiologic Triad- Agent, Host, Environment

The germ theory of disease is the currently accepted scientific theory for many diseases. It states that microorganisms known as pathogens or “germs” can lead to disease. However, the germ theory of disease has many limitations. For example, it is well-known, that not everyone exposed to tuberculosis develops tuberculosis. … Read more

Sensitivity and Specificity

Sensitivity and Specificity

When developing diagnostic tests or evaluating results, it is important to understand how reliable those tests and therefore the results obtained are. By using samples of known disease status, values such as sensitivity and specificity can be calculated that allow … Read more

Randomized Controlled Trial (RCTs)

Randomized Controlled Trial (RCTs)

A randomized controlled trial (or randomized control trial; RCT) is a type of scientific (often medical) experiment that aims to reduce certain sources of bias when testing the effectiveness of new treatments. It is a trial in which subjects are randomly assigned to … Read more

Scope of Epidemiology

Scope of Epidemiology

Epidemiology is defined as “the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations, and application of this study to control of health problems.” Epidemiological studies include observation, surveillance, hypothesis‐testing analytic research methods, and experiments. … Read more

Source and Reservoir of Infection

Source and Reservoir of Infection

The starting point for the occurrence of a communicable disease is the existence of a reservoir or source of infection. The source of infection is defined as “the person, animal, object or substance from which an infectious agent passes or … Read more

Epidemic- Causes, Types, and Response

Epidemic- Causes, Types, and Response

An epidemic is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. According to modern concepts, an epidemic is defined as the occurrence in a community or … Read more

Endemic Diseases

Endemic Diseases

Communicable diseases are termed endemic when they have a relatively stable pattern of occurrence in a given geographical area or population group at the relatively high prevalence and incidence. It refers to the constant presence of a disease or infectious … Read more

Disease Prevention

Disease Prevention

Disease prevention is a procedure through which individuals, those with risk factors for a disease or without the risk factors, are treated in order to prevent a disease from occurring. Treatment normally begins either before signs and symptoms of the … Read more