Prevention and Control of COVID-19

Prevention and Control of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2)

Since there is currently no vaccine to prevent coronavirus disease (COVID-19), the best way to prevent illness is to avoid being exposed to this virus. As the primary mode of transmission is droplet transmission, the preventive measures revolve around the … Read more

Lassa Virus- An Overview

Lassa Virus

Structure of Lassa Virus The virus is a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the virus family Arenaviridae. Figure: Structure of Lassa Virus, Source: Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics The virion is spherical particles with an average diameter of 90–110 nm. Lassa virus … Read more

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus- An Overview

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

Structure of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus falls under the family Bunyaviridae and genus Nairo virus. They are spherical particles 90 to 120 nm in diameter with 5-10 nm projections visible on the surface. Figure: Crimean‐Congo hemorrhagic … Read more

Human Astrovirus- An Overview

Human Astrovirus

Structure of Human Astrovirus Human astrovirus falls under Astroviridae and genus Mamastrovirus. The particles are round in shape, 28 nm in diameter with a smooth margin and display a five or six pointed star motif on their surface.The term astrovirus (Greek: … Read more

Electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) images of SARS-CoV-2

Electron microscopy images of SARS-CoV-2

Here are some of the electron microscopy images (Scanning Electron Micrograph and Transmission Electron Micrograph) of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). More Images at

Structure and Genome of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) with diagram

Structure and Genome of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) with diagram

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are enveloped positive sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that belong to the subfamily Coronavirinae, family Coronavirdiae, order Nidovirales. Four genera of CoVs, namely, Alphacoronavirus (αCoV), Betacoronavirus (βCoV), Deltacoronavirus (δCoV), and Gammacoronavirus (γCoV), are distinguished. This group of viruses is … Read more

Oncogenic Viruses- An Overview

Oncogenic Viruses

Viruses are intracellular pathogens that reproduce only in the living cell and manipulate the cellular machinery to produce more viruses. Viral replications can affect the cellular genes of the host in multiple cancerous ways. An oncovirus is a virus that can cause cancer. Viruses account … Read more

How viruses cause disease?

How viruses cause disease

Viruses gain access to the host through skin and mucous membranes, and via the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genital tracts. Their virulence or lack of it may be determined by very small mutations in the genome. Viral infection of cells may … Read more

Viruses- Structure, Replication and Diagnosis

Viruses- Structure, Replication and Diagnosis

Structure of Virus LIPID ENVELOPE Usually formed from a lipid bilayer taken from their host, into which the virus inserts its own glycoproteins (enveloped virus). Not all viruses have envelopes (naked virus). Viruses without envelopes are less prone to damage … Read more

Hanta Virus- An Overview

Hanta Virus

Structure of Hanta Virus Source: Viral Zone Hantavirus falls under the Bunyaviridae family. The virion displays round or pleomorphic morphology with a diameter of roughly 120-160 nm. The virus capsid is enveloped by a single layer envelope. The envelope surrounds three … Read more

Coltivirus- An Overview


Structure of Coltivirus Coltivirusparticles are 60–80 nm in diameter having two concentric capsid shells with a core that is about 50 nm in diameter. They have a relatively smooth surface capsomeric structure and icosahedral symmetry. Non enveloped, icosahedral virion with a triple capsid … Read more

Norwalk Virus (Norovirus)- An Overview

Structure and Genome of Norwalk Virus

Structure of Norwalk Virus (Norovirus) The virus is non-enveloped, round, 27-nm particles with a ‘ragged’ outer edge but lacking a definite surface structure. It has a buoyant density of 1.33–1.41 g/cm3, an inability to propagate in vitro. Characteristically, Norwalk virus possesses … Read more

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV)

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV)

Structure of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) They are enveloped viruses with round and sometimes pleiomorphic virions of approximately 80 to 120 nm in diameter. It contains positive-strand RNA, with the largest RNA genome (approximately 30 kb). The genome RNA … Read more

Ebola Virus- An Overview

Ebola Virus- Structure, Genome, Epidemiology, Transmission, Replication, Pathogenesis, Clinical Manifestation, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control

Structure of Ebola Virus It falls under the Filoviridae family. The virion is filamentous, enveloped measuring 800 nm length and 80 nm in diameter. It comprises of negative sense, single stranded RNA genome. Structural proteins associated with the nucleocapsid are the … Read more

Torovirus- An Overview

Classification of Torovirus Group IV: ssRNA positive strand virus Order: Nidovirales Family: Coronaviridae Subfamily: Toronavirinae Genus: Torovirus Structure of Torovirus Torovirusis a genus of viruses in the order Nidovirales, in the family Coronaviridae, in the subfamily Torovirinae. Toroviruses are pleomorphic, enveloped particles, 120–140 nm in diameter. The … Read more