Hematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E stain or HE stain)

Hematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E stain or HE stain)

Hematoxylin and eosin staining technique functions to recognize different types of tissues and their morphological changes, especially in cancer diagnosis. Hematoxylin has a deep blue-purple color and stains nucleic acids by a complex, incompletely understood reaction. Eosin is pink and stains proteins nonspecifically. In a typical tissue, nuclei are stained blue, whereas the cytoplasm and … Read more Hematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E stain or HE stain)

Calcofluor White Staining

Calcofluor White Staining

Calcofluor White Staining Calcofluor white is a chemifluorescent blue dye that is nonspecifically used to bind to the beta linked-polysaccharide polymers of amoebic cysts. It functions by being able to bind to 1-3 beta and 1-4 beta polysaccharides on chitin and cellulose that is present in cell walls on fungi, plants, and algae. Due to … Read more Calcofluor White Staining

Grocott-Gomori’s Methenamine Silver Staining

Grocott-Gomori's Methenamine Silver Staining

Grocott-Gomori’s Methenamine Silver (GMS) stain is a histological stain that is used majorly for the identification of carbohydrates in fungal microorganisms. This staining method was named after György Gömöri, a physician from Hungary, who developed the staining methodology. Its initial application to assess missing tissues and diseases in the liver and the rectum (Nadworny, Wang, … Read more Grocott-Gomori’s Methenamine Silver Staining

Giemsa Stain- Principle, Procedure, Results, Interpretation

Giemsa Stain- Principle, Procedure, Results, Interpretation

Introduction Giemsa stain was a name adopted from a Germany Chemist scientist, for his application of a combination of reagents in demonstrating the presence of parasites in malaria. It belongs to a group of stains known as Romanowsky stains. These are neutral stains made up of a mixture of oxidized methylene blue, azure, and Eosin … Read more Giemsa Stain- Principle, Procedure, Results, Interpretation

Gram Stain- Principle, Reagents, Procedure, Steps, Results

Gram Stain- Principle, Reagents, Procedure and Result Interpretation

The Gram stain was developed by Christian Gram in 1884 and modified by Hucker in 1921. The objective of Gram Stain This test differentiates the bacteria into Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria, which helps in the classification and differentiation of microorganisms. The Gram stain separates bacteria into two groups: (1) Gram-positive microorganisms that retain the primary … Read more Gram Stain- Principle, Reagents, Procedure, Steps, Results

Albert Staining- Principle, Reagents, Procedure, Results, Interpretation

Albert Staining- Principle, Reagents, Procedure, Results, Interpretation

Special stains have been developed over time for identifying bacteria species, differentiating them morphologically, and even characterizing there very special features. The most common stain being Gram Staining, Acid-fast staining, endospore staining. Each of these stains aims at identifying and characterizing bacteria based on their morphologies. Albert stain is no different. Its application aim at … Read more Albert Staining- Principle, Reagents, Procedure, Results, Interpretation

Endospore Staining- Types, principle, procedure and Interpretation

Endospore Staining- Types, principle, procedure and Interpretation

Introduction A normal bacterial cell is known as a vegetative form of a bacterial cell. It can multiply freely when provided with conducive environmental conditions like the provision of nutrients, temperature, water, and oxygen. But some groups of bacteria, when exposed to unfavorable conditions such us, lack of nutrients, an insufficient supply of oxygen or … Read more Endospore Staining- Types, principle, procedure and Interpretation

Flagella Stain- Principle, Procedure and Result Interpretation

Flagella Stain- Principle, Procedure and Result Interpretation

Objective of Flagella Stain This technique is used to visualize the presence and arrangement of flagella for the presumptive identification of motile bacterial species. Principle of Flagella Stain Flagella are too thin to be visualized using a bright field microscope with ordinary stains, such as the Gram stain, or a simple stain. A wet mount … Read more Flagella Stain- Principle, Procedure and Result Interpretation

Spore Stain- Principle, Procedure and Result Interpretation

Spore Stain- Principle, Procedure and Result Interpretation

Spore Stain- Principle, Procedure and Result Interpretation Members of the anaerobic genera Clostridium and Desulfotomaculum and the aerobic genus Bacillus are examples of organisms that have the capacity to exist either as metabolically active vegetative cells or as highly resistant, metabolically inactive cell types called spores. When environmental conditions become unfavorable for continuing vegetative cellular … Read more Spore Stain- Principle, Procedure and Result Interpretation

Capsule Stain- Principle, Procedure and Result Interpretation

Capsule Stain- Principle, Procedure and Result Interpretation A capsule is a gelatinous outer layer that is secreted by the cell and that surrounds and adheres to the cell wall. It is not common to all organisms. Cells that have a heavy capsule are generally virulent and capable of producing disease, since the structure protects bacteria … Read more Capsule Stain- Principle, Procedure and Result Interpretation