T-test- definition, formula, types, applications, example

T-test- definition, formula, types, applications, example

T-test definition The t-test is a test in statistics that is used for testing hypotheses regarding the mean of a small sample taken population when the standard deviation of the population is not known. The t-test is used to determine if there is a significant difference between the means of two groups. The t-test is used for hypothesis testing to …

Read moreT-test- definition, formula, types, applications, example

Chi-square test

Chi-square test

Chi-square test definition A Chi-square test is performed to determine if there is a difference between the theoretical population parameter and the observed data. Chi-square test is a non-parametric test where the data is not assumed to be normally distributed but is distributed in a chi-square fashion. It allows the researcher to test factors like a number of factors like …

Read moreChi-square test

10 Differences Between Independent and Dependent variables

Differences Between Independent and Dependent variables

Independent Variables The Independent variable is a type of variable used in experimental sciences, statistical modeling, and mathematical modeling which doesn’t depend on any other variables in the scope of the experiment. An independent variable can be manipulated in an experiment, which in turn affects the changes in the dependent variables. Mostly in mathematical equations, independent variables are denoted by …

Read more10 Differences Between Independent and Dependent variables

Type I Error and Type II Error with 10 Differences

Type I Error and Type II Error with 10 Differences

Image Source: AB Tasty. Type 1 error definition Type 1 error, in statistical hypothesis testing, is the error caused by rejecting a null hypothesis when it is true. Type 1 error is caused when the hypothesis that should have been accepted is rejected. Type I error is denoted by α (alpha) known as an error, also called the level of …

Read moreType I Error and Type II Error with 10 Differences

Null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis with 9 differences

Null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis

Null hypothesis definition The null hypothesis is a general statement that states that there is no relationship between two phenomenons under consideration or that there is no association between two groups. A hypothesis, in general, is an assumption that is yet to be proved with sufficient pieces of evidence. A null hypothesis thus is the hypothesis a researcher is trying …

Read moreNull hypothesis and alternative hypothesis with 9 differences

13 Differences between Quantitative and Qualitative Data

Difference between Quantitative and Qualitative Data

Quantitative and Qualitative Data Definition Qualitative data is data concerned with descriptions, which can be observed but cannot be computed. On the contrary, quantitative data is the one that focuses on numbers and mathematical calculations and can be calculated and computed. So, for the collection and measurement of data, any of the two methods discussed above can be used. Although both have …

Read more13 Differences between Quantitative and Qualitative Data

Questionnaire- Types, Format, Questions

Questionnaire- Types, Format, Questions

A questionnaire is defined as a document containing questions and other types of items designed to solicit information appropriate for analysis. The questionnaire may be regarded as a form of an interview on paper. Procedure for the construction of a questionnaire follows a pattern similar to that of the interview schedule. However, because the questionnaire is impersonal it is all …

Read moreQuestionnaire- Types, Format, Questions

Descriptive Studies- Types, Applications, Advantages, Limitations

Descriptive Studies- Types, Applications, Advantages, Limitations

A simple description of the health status of a community, based on routinely available data or on data obtained in special surveys, is often the first step in an epidemiological investigation. Such a study is termed as a descriptive study. A descriptive study – as the name implies – describes the distributions of disease, injury or health in a population, outlining the burden of …

Read moreDescriptive Studies- Types, Applications, Advantages, Limitations

Types of Bias in Epidemiology

Common Types of Bias

Types of Bias in Epidemiology Any trend in the collection, analysis, interpretation, publication, or review of data that can lead to conclusions that are systematically different from the truth can be termed as bias. Bias is a major consideration in any type of epidemiologic study design. It has been defined as “any systematic error in the design, conduct or analysis …

Read moreTypes of Bias in Epidemiology

Questionnaires and Schedules

Questionnaires and Schedules

Questionnaires and Schedules The research process is incomplete without the collection of data, which starts after the identification of the research problems and chalking out research design. There are several methods involved in the collection of primary data, like observation, interviews, questionnaires, schedules, etc. Both questionnaire and schedule are popularly used methods of collecting data in research surveys. There is …

Read moreQuestionnaires and Schedules