Centrifugation- Principle, Types and Applications


Centrifugation is a technique of separating substances which involves the application of centrifugal force. The particles are separated from a solution according to their size, shape, density, the viscosity of the medium and rotor speed. Principle of Centrifugation In a solution, particles … Read more

Gel Filtration Chromatography

Gel Filtration Chromatography

Biomolecules are purified using different techniques that separate them according to the differences in their specific properties such as size, hydrophobicity, biorecognition, charge, etc. Gel filtration is a technique in which the separation of components is based on the difference … Read more

Gel Permeation Chromatography

Gel Permeation Chromatography

Gel permeation chromatography is also called as gel filtration or size exclusion chromatography. In size exclusion chromatography, the stationary phase is a porous matrix made up of compounds like cross-linked polystyrene, cross-like dextrans, polyacrylamide gels, agarose gels, etc. The separation … Read more

Gamma-ray (γ-ray) Spectroscopy

gamma-ray spectrometer

Gamma rays are an ultrahigh frequency of light that is emitted by radioactive elements, energetic celestial bodies such as black holes and neutron stars, and high energy events such as nuclear explosions and supernovae. Gamma-ray (γ-ray) spectroscopy is a quick … Read more

Solid State Fermentation (SSF)

Schematic of solid state fermenter for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to enzymes.

Solid State Fermentation (SSF) is a fermentation method used by several industries like the pharmaceuticals, food, textile etc., to produce metabolites of microorganisms using solid support in place of the liquid medium. It is defined as the growth of microbes without … Read more

X-Ray Spectroscopy- Principle, Instrumentation and Applications

X-Ray Spectroscopy

X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation. Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 0.01 to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (3×1016 Hz to 3×1019 Hz) and energies in the range 100 eV to 100 keV, produced by the deceleration of high-energy electrons. X-ray spectroscopy is a general … Read more

Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy

Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy

Infrared (IR) spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy is an analytical technique that takes advantage of the vibrational transitions of a molecule. It is one of the most common and widely used spectroscopic techniques employed mainly by inorganic and organic chemists due … Read more