Gamma-ray (γ-ray) Spectroscopy

gamma-ray spectrometer

Gamma-ray (γ-ray) Spectroscopy Gamma rays are an ultrahigh frequency of light that is emitted by radioactive elements, energetic celestial bodies such as black holes and neutron stars, and high energy events such as nuclear explosions and supernovae. Gamma-ray (γ-ray) spectroscopy is a quick and nondestructive analytical technique that can be used to identify various radioactive … Read moreGamma-ray (γ-ray) Spectroscopy

Solid State Fermentation (SSF)

Schematic of solid state fermenter for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to enzymes.

Solid State Fermentation (SSF) Solid State Fermentation (SSF) is a fermentation method used by several industries like the pharmaceuticals, food, textile etc., to produce metabolites of microorganisms using solid support in place of the liquid medium. It is defined as the growth of microbes without free-flowing aqueous phase. The SSF is alternative to submerged fermentation for … Read moreSolid State Fermentation (SSF)

Darkfield Microscopy

Darkfield Microscopy

Darkfield Microscopy Microbiology, the branch of science that has so vastly extended and expanded our knowledge of the living world, owes its existence to Antoni van Leeuwenhoek. In 1673, with the aid of a crude microscope consisting of a biconcave lens enclosed in two metal plates, Leeuwenhoek introduced the world to the existence of microbial … Read moreDarkfield Microscopy

X-Ray Spectroscopy- Principle, Instrumentation and Applications

X-Ray Spectroscopy

X-Ray Spectroscopy- Principle, Instrumentation and Applications X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation. Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 0.01 to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (3×1016 Hz to 3×1019 Hz) and energies in the range 100 eV to 100 keV, produced by the deceleration of high-energy electrons. X-ray spectroscopy is a general term for several spectroscopic techniques for characterization of materials by using x-ray excitation. … Read moreX-Ray Spectroscopy- Principle, Instrumentation and Applications

Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy

Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy

Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy Infrared (IR) spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy is an analytical technique that takes advantage of the vibrational transitions of a molecule. It is one of the most common and widely used spectroscopic techniques employed mainly by inorganic and organic chemists due to its usefulness in determining structures of compounds and identifying them. The … Read moreInfrared (IR) Spectroscopy

Mass Spectrometry (MS)- Principle, Working, Instrumentation, Steps, Applications

Principle of Mass Spectrometry (MS)

Mass Spectrometry (MS)- Principle, Working, Instrumentation, Steps, Applications Mass Spectrometry (MS) is an analytical chemistry technique that helps identify the amount and type of chemicals present in a sample by measuring the mass-to-charge ratio and abundance of gas-phase ions. In this instrumental technique, sample is converted to rapidly moving positive ions by electron bombardment and charged … Read moreMass Spectrometry (MS)- Principle, Working, Instrumentation, Steps, Applications

Electron Spin Resonance (ESR)- Principle, Instrumentation, Applications

Electron Spin Resonance (ESR)

Electron Spin Resonance (ESR)- Principle, Instrumentation, Applications Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) also known as Electron Magnetic Resonance (EMR) or Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) is a branch of absorption spectroscopy in which radiations having frequency in the microwave region (0.04 – 25 cm) is absorbed by paramagnetic substances to induce transitions between magnetic energy levels of … Read moreElectron Spin Resonance (ESR)- Principle, Instrumentation, Applications

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy or magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), is a spectroscopic technique to observe local magnetic fields around atomic nuclei.  It is a spectroscopy technique which is based on the absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the radio frequency region 4 to 900 MHz by nuclei of the atoms. Over … Read moreNuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy

UV Spectroscopy- Principle, Instrumentation, Applications

UV Spectroscopy

UV Spectroscopy- Principle, Instrumentation, Applications Spectroscopy is the measurement and interpretation of electromagnetic radiation absorbed or emitted when the molecules or atoms or ions of a sample moves from one energy state to another energy state. UV spectroscopy is type of absorption spectroscopy in which light of ultra-violet region (200-400 nm) is absorbed by the … Read moreUV Spectroscopy- Principle, Instrumentation, Applications

Ion Exchange Chromatography

Ion Exchange Chromatography

Ion Exchange Chromatography Chromatography is the separation of a mixture of compounds into its individual components based on their relative interactions with an inert matrix. Ion exchange chromatography (or ion chromatography) is a process that allows the separation of ions and polar molecules based on their affinity to ion exchangers. The principle of separation is thus by reversible exchange … Read moreIon Exchange Chromatography