14 Types of Chromatography (Definition, Principle, Steps, Uses)

Types of Chromatography (Definition, Principle, Steps, Uses)

Chromatography Definition Chromatography is an important biophysical technique that enables the separation, identification, and purification of the components of a mixture for qualitative and quantitative analysis. A wide range of chromatographic procedures makes use of differences in size, binding affinities, charge, and other properties to separate materials. It is a powerful separation tool that is … Read more 14 Types of Chromatography (Definition, Principle, Steps, Uses)

Types of Centrifuge & Centrifugation (definition, principle, uses)

Types of Centrifuge and Centrifugation

Centrifuge definition A centrifuge is a device used to separate components of a mixture on the basis of their size, density, the viscosity of the medium, and the rotor speed. The centrifuge is commonly used in laboratories for the separation of biological molecules from a crude extract. In a centrifuge, the sample is kept in … Read more Types of Centrifuge & Centrifugation (definition, principle, uses)

Autoclave- definition, parts, principle, procedure, types, uses

Autoclave- definition, parts, principle, procedure, types, uses

Autoclave Definition An autoclave is a machine that provides a physical method of sterilization by killing bacteria, viruses, and even spores present in the material put inside of the vessel using steam under pressure. Autoclave sterilizes the materials by heating them up to a particular temperature for a specific period of time. The autoclave is … Read more Autoclave- definition, parts, principle, procedure, types, uses

Flow Cytometry-Definition, Principle, Parts, Steps, Types, Uses

Flow Cytometry-Definition, Principle, Parts, Steps, Types, Uses

Flow Cytometry Definition Flow cytometry is a standard laser-based technology that is used in the detection and measurement of physical and chemical characteristics of cells or particles in a heterogeneous fluid mixture. The use of flow cytometry has increased over the years as it provides a rapid analysis of multiple characteristics (both qualitative and quantitative) … Read more Flow Cytometry-Definition, Principle, Parts, Steps, Types, Uses

Instruments used in Microbiology Lab with Principle and Uses

Instruments used in Microbiology Lab with Principle and Uses

The instruments used in the microbiology labs include a bunch of different kinds of instruments required for a lot of different processes conducted within those laboratories. Figure: Instruments used in Microbiology Lab with Principle and Uses. Image created with biorender.com 1. Analytical Balance An analytical balance is a type of balance that is commonly used … Read more Instruments used in Microbiology Lab with Principle and Uses

Gel Filtration Chromatography

Gel Filtration Chromatography

Gel Filtration Chromatography Biomolecules are purified using different techniques that separate them according to the differences in their specific properties such as size, hydrophobicity, biorecognition, charge, etc. Gel filtration is a technique in which the separation of components is based on the difference in molecular weight or size. It is the simplest and mildest of … Read more Gel Filtration Chromatography

Gel Permeation Chromatography

Gel Permeation Chromatography

Gel Permeation Chromatography Gel permeation chromatography is also called as gel filtration or size exclusion chromatography. In size exclusion chromatography, the stationary phase is a porous matrix made up of compounds like cross-linked polystyrene, cross-like dextrans, polyacrylamide gels, agarose gels, etc. The separation is based on the analyte molecular sizes since the gel behaves like … Read more Gel Permeation Chromatography

Gamma-ray (γ-ray) Spectroscopy

gamma-ray spectrometer

Gamma-ray (γ-ray) Spectroscopy Gamma rays are an ultrahigh frequency of light that is emitted by radioactive elements, energetic celestial bodies such as black holes and neutron stars, and high energy events such as nuclear explosions and supernovae. Gamma-ray (γ-ray) spectroscopy is a quick and nondestructive analytical technique that can be used to identify various radioactive … Read more Gamma-ray (γ-ray) Spectroscopy

Solid State Fermentation (SSF)

Schematic of solid state fermenter for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to enzymes.

Solid State Fermentation (SSF) Solid State Fermentation (SSF) is a fermentation method used by several industries like the pharmaceuticals, food, textile etc., to produce metabolites of microorganisms using solid support in place of the liquid medium. It is defined as the growth of microbes without free-flowing aqueous phase. The SSF is alternative to submerged fermentation for … Read more Solid State Fermentation (SSF)

X-Ray Spectroscopy- Principle, Instrumentation and Applications

X-Ray Spectroscopy

X-Ray Spectroscopy- Principle, Instrumentation and Applications X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation. Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 0.01 to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (3×1016 Hz to 3×1019 Hz) and energies in the range 100 eV to 100 keV, produced by the deceleration of high-energy electrons. X-ray spectroscopy is a general term for several spectroscopic techniques for characterization of materials by using x-ray excitation. … Read more X-Ray Spectroscopy- Principle, Instrumentation and Applications