DNA Polymerase- definition, structure, types (vs RNA polymerase)

DNA polymerase

DNA polymerase definition DNA polymerases are a group of enzymes that are used to make copies of DNA templates, essentially used in DNA replication mechanisms. These enzymes make new copies of DNA from existing templates and also function by repairing the synthesized DNA to prevent mutations. DNA polymerase catalyzes the formation of the phosphodiester bond … Read more DNA Polymerase- definition, structure, types (vs RNA polymerase)

DNA Replication- definition, enzymes, steps, mechanism, diagram

DNA Replication

What is DNA? Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that is made up of three components: a deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base. Deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA is the genetic material via which a cell is defined. It is a long molecule containing unique codes that give instructions for the synthesis of all … Read more DNA Replication- definition, enzymes, steps, mechanism, diagram

10 differences between Phenotype and Genotype with examples

Differences between Phenotype and Genotype

Phenotype Definition Phenotype is a term used in genetics to refer to all the observable traits in organisms as a result of the interaction of the genotype with the environment. The term ‘pheno’ in ‘phenotype’ refers to ‘observe’ and thus phenotype is used to indicate the observable characteristics in organisms like its height and color. … Read more 10 differences between Phenotype and Genotype with examples

10 differences between Incomplete dominance and Co-dominance

Differences between Incomplete dominance and Co-dominance

Image Source: Spencerbaron and YassineMrabet. Incomplete dominance definition Incomplete dominance is a mechanism of dominance in heterozygotes, where the dominant allele does not entirely overcome the phenotypic expression of the recessive allele, and there occurs an intermediate phenotype in the heterozygote. Incomplete dominance is also called partial dominance or semi-dominance as the phenotype resulting from … Read more 10 differences between Incomplete dominance and Co-dominance

10 differences between Homozygous and Heterozygous

Differences between Homozygous and Heterozygous

Homozygous Definition Homozygous is a genetic condition where an individual inherits the same alleles of a gene from both the parents. In homozygous chromosomes, both alleles are either dominant or recessive. The dominant trait is represented by two capital letters (XX) and the recessive trait is represented by two lowercase letters (xx). Homozygous-dominant chromosomes carry … Read more 10 differences between Homozygous and Heterozygous

16 Differences Between Heterochromatin and Euchromatin

Differences Between Heterochromatin and Euchromatin

Heterochromatin Definition Heterochromatin is a tightly packed or condensed DNA that is characterized by intense stains when stained with nuclear stains, containing transcriptionally inactive sequences. It exists in multiple variations, up to four to five state, each of which is marked with combinations of epigenetic markers. The staining of heterochromatin might result in heteropycnosis; heteropycnosis … Read more 16 Differences Between Heterochromatin and Euchromatin

11 differences between Endonuclease and Exonuclease

Differences between Endonuclease and Exonuclease

Image Source: Helixitta and Christopherrussell. Endonuclease Definition An endonuclease is a group of enzymes that cleave the phosphodiester bond present within a polynucleotide chain. Endonucleases are capable of breaking the bond from the middle of a chain. These enzymes are either specific or non-specific to the sequences being cleaved. The endonucleases that are specific to … Read more 11 differences between Endonuclease and Exonuclease

11 differences between Chromosome and Chromatid

Differences between Chromosome and Chromatid (Chromosome vs Chromatid)

Chromosome Definition A chromosome is a thread-like structure present in the nucleus or nuclear region of the cytoplasm that is made up of a single molecule of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) and proteins, carrying some or all genetic materials of an organism. These chromosomes are only visible under the light microscope during the metaphase of the … Read more 11 differences between Chromosome and Chromatid

Transposable elements- definition, types, examples, applications

transposable elements

Transposable elements definition Transposable elements (TE) or transposons can be defined as small, mobile DNA sequences that move around chromosomes with no regard for homology, and insertion of these elements may produce deletions, inversions, chromosomal fusions, and even more complicated rearrangements. Transposons are mobile genetic elements that often carry an antimicrobial resistance gene. These elements … Read more Transposable elements- definition, types, examples, applications

Bacterial Transformation- definition, principle, steps, examples

Bacterial Transformation

Bacterial Transformation Definition Bacterial transformation is the transfer of free DNA released from a donor bacterium into the extracellular environment that results in assimilation and usually an expression of the newly acquired trait in a recipient bacterium. This process doesn’t require a living donor cell and only requires free DNA in the environment. The recipient … Read more Bacterial Transformation- definition, principle, steps, examples