Lymphocytes- Types and Functions

Lymphocytes- Types and Functions

Lymphocytes are the cells that specifically recognize and respond to foreign antigens and are mediators of humoral and cellular immunity. Lymphocytes, the unique cells of adaptive immunity, are the only cells in the body that express clonally distributed antigen receptors, … Read more

Macrophages- Introductions and Functions

Macrophages- Introductions and Functions

Macrophages The mononuclear phagocytic system consists of monocytes circulating in the blood and macrophages in the tissues. The monocyte is considered a leukocyte in transit through the blood, which becomes a macrophage when fixed in a tissue. Monocytes and macrophages … Read more

Cells of the immune system

Cells of the immune system

The cells that serve specialized roles in innate and adaptive immune responses are phagocytes, dendritic cells, antigen-specific lymphocytes, and various other leukocytes that function to eliminate antigens. Although most of these cells are found in the blood, their responses to … Read more

Factors affecting Immunogenicity

Factors affecting Immunogenicity

Immunogenicity is determined by: A. Properties of Immunogen Foreignness An antigen must be a foreign substance to the animal or recognized as non-self by the biological system to elicit an immune response. E.g. Bovine serum albumin, a common experiment antigen … Read more

Types of Precipitation Reactions

Types of Precipitation Reactions

Precipitation reactions can be broad of three types: Precipitation in solution. Precipitation in agar. Precipitation in agar with an electric field. Precipitation in solution Ring test and flocculation test are examples of precipitation in solution. It is also called simple … Read more

Introduction to Antigen-Antibody Reactions

Introduction to Antigen-Antibody Reactions

The interactions between antigens and antibodies are known as antigen–antibody reactions. The reactions are highly specific, and an antigen reacts only with antibodies produced by itself or with closely related antigens. Antibodies recognize molecular shapes (epitopes) on antigens. Generally, the … Read more

Antibody- Introduction, Structure and Classes

Antibody- Structure-and-Classes

What are Antibodies? Antibodies are often referred to as immunoglobulins (immune proteins). Antibodies, or Y-shaped immunoglobulins, are proteins found in the blood that help to fight against foreign substances called antigens. Antigens, which are usually proteins or polysaccharides, stimulate the immune … Read more

Sandwich ELISA- Steps and Advantages

Sandwich ELISA- Steps and Advantages

The sandwich ELISA quantify antigens between two layers of antibodies (i.e. capture and detection antibody). Sandwich ELISA is named so as antigen is sandwiched between two antibodies. The sandwich assay uses two different antibodies that are reactive with different epitopes … Read more