Neutrophils – Definition, structure, count, range, functions

Neutrophils - Definition, structure, count, range, functions

Neutrophils Definition Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell with multi-lobed nuclei and stainable cytoplasmic granules. These are the most abundant granulocytes, occupying about 40-60% of the total number of white blood cells in the blood. Neutrophils, like all other blood cells, are formed from the stem cells in the bone marrow. After differentiation … Read more Neutrophils – Definition, structure, count, range, functions

Opsonization- Definition, Mechanism, Opsonins, Examples

Opsonins

Opsonization definition The term opsonization refers to the capacity of antibodies and complement components (as well as other proteins) to coat dangerous antigens that can then be recognized by antibodies or complement receptors on phagocytic cells. Opsonization is the molecular mechanism whereby molecules, microbes, or apoptotic cells are chemically modified to have stronger interactions with … Read more Opsonization- Definition, Mechanism, Opsonins, Examples

Endocytosis- Definition, Process and Types with Examples

Endocytosis- Definition, Process, Types. Examples

Endocytosis Definition Endocytosis is a cellular mechanism by which, a cell internalizes substances including proteins, fluids, electrolytes, microorganisms, and some macromolecules, from its external environment. These substances undergo certain processes of breaking down to smaller elements either for use by the cell or for elimination purposes. White blood cells, of the immune system, are the … Read more Endocytosis- Definition, Process and Types with Examples

15 differences between MHC Class I and Class II (mhc i vs ii)

Differences between MHC Class I and Class II

MHC Class I and Class II differences (mhc i vs mhc ii) The major differences are: S.N. Characteristics MHC-I molecule MHC -II molecule 1. Distribution Present on almost all nucleated cells including platelets. Have a restricted tissue distribution and are chiefly found on macrophages, dendritic cells, B cells, and other antigen-presenting cells only. 2. Encoding … Read more 15 differences between MHC Class I and Class II (mhc i vs ii)

Immune Booster Foods

Immune Booster Foods

Amidst the COVID-19 outbreak, the pandemic has stirred questions about how effective is the body in fighting infections. Naturally, the body fights infections by activating its immune responses which activate cascades of mechanisms in the body to eliminate the pathogen from the system. Immunity definition Immunity is the main process that defends the body from … Read more Immune Booster Foods

Stem Cells- Sources, Characteristics, Types, Uses

Stem Cells- Sources, Characteristics, Types, Uses

Stem cells refer to such cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can also divide in self-renewal to produce more of the same type of same cells. The earliest stem cells in the human body are those found in the human embryo. The stem cells inside an embryo will eventually give rise … Read more Stem Cells- Sources, Characteristics, Types, Uses

Counter Current Immunoelectrophoresis

Counter Current Immunoelectrophoresis

Counter Current Immunoelectrophoresis Immunoelectrophoresis refers to the process in which an antigen mixture is first separated into its component parts by electrophoresis and then tested by immunodiffusion. The electrophoresed antigen mixture in agarose gel allows the separation of different antigens along the gel slide, and then the lateral diffusion of an antibody in the gel … Read more Counter Current Immunoelectrophoresis

Ouchterlony Double Immunodiffusion technique

Ouchterlony Double Immunodiffusion technique

Ouchterlony Double Immunodiffusion technique Immuno-diffusion is a technique for the detection or measurement of antibodies and antigens by their precipitation which involves diffusion through a substance such as agar or gel agarose. Simply, it denotes precipitation in gel. It refers to one of the several techniques for obtaining a precipitate between an antibody and its … Read more Ouchterlony Double Immunodiffusion technique

Physiological barriers of immune system

Physiological barriers of immune system

Physiological barriers of immune system The simplest way to avoid infection is to prevent the microorganisms from gaining access to the body. Anatomical and physiological barriers together provide this crucial first line of defense against pathogens. Physiological barriers that contribute to the innate immunity are the body temperature, pH and various soluble secretory products of … Read more Physiological barriers of immune system

Complement Components

Complement Components

Complement Components Complement refers to a set of serum proteins that cooperates with both the innate and the adaptive immune systems to eliminate blood and tissue pathogens. Complement components can be classified into seven functional categories: Initiator complement components: These proteins initiate their respective complement cascades by binding to particular soluble or membrane-bound molecules. Once … Read more Complement Components

Complement- Properties and Nomenclature

Complement- Properties and Nomenclature

Complement- Properties and Nomenclature Complement refers to a set of serum proteins that cooperates with both the innate and the adaptive immune systems to eliminate blood and tissue pathogens. Various complement components bind and opsonize bacteria, rendering them susceptible to receptor-mediated phagocytosis by macrophages, which express membrane receptors for complement proteins. Other complement proteins elicit … Read more Complement- Properties and Nomenclature

Latex Agglutination Test

Results and Interpretation of Latex Agglutination Test

Latex Agglutination Test When a particulate or insoluble antigen is mixed with its antibody in the presence of electrolytes at a suitable temperature and pH, the particles are clumped or agglutinated. Agglutination reactions are classified as direct, indirect (passive) and reverse passive agglutination reactions. Direct Agglutination Test refers to the assays in which the antigen directly … Read more Latex Agglutination Test