Immune Booster Foods

Immune Booster Foods

Amidst the COVID-19 outbreak, the pandemic has stirred questions about how effective is the body in fighting infections. Naturally, the body fights infections by activating its immune responses which activate cascades of mechanisms in the body to eliminate the pathogen from the system. Immunity definition Immunity is the main process that defends the body from … Read more Immune Booster Foods

Stem Cells- Sources, Characteristics, Types, Uses

Stem Cells- Sources, Characteristics, Types, Uses

Stem cells refer to such cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can also divide in self-renewal to produce more of the same type of same cells. The earliest stem cells in the human body are those found in the human embryo. The stem cells inside an embryo will eventually give rise … Read more Stem Cells- Sources, Characteristics, Types, Uses

Counter Current Immunoelectrophoresis

Counter Current Immunoelectrophoresis

Counter Current Immunoelectrophoresis Immunoelectrophoresis refers to the process in which an antigen mixture is first separated into its component parts by electrophoresis and then tested by immunodiffusion. The electrophoresed antigen mixture in agarose gel allows the separation of different antigens along the gel slide, and then the lateral diffusion of an antibody in the gel … Read more Counter Current Immunoelectrophoresis

Ouchterlony Double Immunodiffusion technique

Ouchterlony Double Immunodiffusion technique

Ouchterlony Double Immunodiffusion technique Immuno-diffusion is a technique for the detection or measurement of antibodies and antigens by their precipitation which involves diffusion through a substance such as agar or gel agarose. Simply, it denotes precipitation in gel. It refers to one of the several techniques for obtaining a precipitate between an antibody and its … Read more Ouchterlony Double Immunodiffusion technique

Physiological barriers of immune system

Physiological barriers of immune system

Physiological barriers of immune system The simplest way to avoid infection is to prevent the microorganisms from gaining access to the body. Anatomical and physiological barriers together provide this crucial first line of defense against pathogens. Physiological barriers that contribute to the innate immunity are the body temperature, pH and various soluble secretory products of … Read more Physiological barriers of immune system

Complement Components

Complement Components

Complement Components Complement refers to a set of serum proteins that cooperates with both the innate and the adaptive immune systems to eliminate blood and tissue pathogens. Complement components can be classified into seven functional categories: Initiator complement components: These proteins initiate their respective complement cascades by binding to particular soluble or membrane-bound molecules. Once … Read more Complement Components

Complement- Properties and Nomenclature

Complement- Properties and Nomenclature

Complement- Properties and Nomenclature Complement refers to a set of serum proteins that cooperates with both the innate and the adaptive immune systems to eliminate blood and tissue pathogens. Various complement components bind and opsonize bacteria, rendering them susceptible to receptor-mediated phagocytosis by macrophages, which express membrane receptors for complement proteins. Other complement proteins elicit … Read more Complement- Properties and Nomenclature

Latex Agglutination Test

Results and Interpretation of Latex Agglutination Test

Latex Agglutination Test When a particulate or insoluble antigen is mixed with its antibody in the presence of electrolytes at a suitable temperature and pH, the particles are clumped or agglutinated. Agglutination reactions are classified as direct, indirect (passive) and reverse passive agglutination reactions. Direct Agglutination Test refers to the assays in which the antigen directly … Read more Latex Agglutination Test

Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) Test

Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) Test

Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) like the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test is a screening test for syphilis which is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum. It is a rapid non-treponemal test that looks for non-specific antibodies in the blood of the patient that may indicate a syphilis infection. The test does not look for antibodies against … Read more Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) Test

Coomb’s Test- Direct and Indirect Coomb’s Test

Result Interpretation of Coomb's Test

Coomb’s Test- Direct and Indirect Coomb’s Test Coomb’s test is a direct agglutination reaction, more commonly known as antiglobulin test. It was discovered by Coombs, Mourant and Race in 1945 originally for the detection of incomplete anti-Rh antibodies. In the test, incomplete antibodies do not agglutinate erythrocytes. Incomplete antibody antiglobulin coats the surface of erythrocytes … Read more Coomb’s Test- Direct and Indirect Coomb’s Test

Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) Test

Result Interpretation of VDRL Test

The Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test (VDRL) is a screening test for sexually transmitted infection – syphilis caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum.  It is a non-treponemal test, which detects antibodies IgM and IgG antibodies to lipoidal material released from damaged host cells as well as to lipoprotein-like material, and possibly cardiolipin released from the treponemes. These antibodies are … Read more Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) Test

Rocket Immunoelectrophoresis- Objectives, Principle, Procedure, Results, Applications, Advantages and Limitations

Result Interpretation of Rocket Immunoelectrophoresis

Rocket Immunoelectrophoresis is an adaptation of radial immunodiffusion developed by Laurell. It is also known as electroimmunoassay or electroimmunodiffusion. It is called as “rocket electrophoresis” due to the appearance of the precipitin bands in the shape of cone-like structures (rocket appearance) at the end of the reaction. In rocket immunoelectrophoresis, antigen migrates in an electric field … Read more Rocket Immunoelectrophoresis- Objectives, Principle, Procedure, Results, Applications, Advantages and Limitations

Immunoelectrophoresis- Principle, Procedure, Results and Applications, Advantages and Limitations

Immunoelectrophoresis- Principle, Procedure, Results and Applications

Immunoelectrophoresis refers to precipitation in agar under an electric field. It is a process of a combination of immuno-diffusion and electrophoresis. An antigen mixture is first separated into its component parts by electrophoresis and then tested by double immuno-diffusion. Antigens are placed into wells cut in a gel (without antibody) and electrophoresed. A trough is … Read more Immunoelectrophoresis- Principle, Procedure, Results and Applications, Advantages and Limitations