Exotoxins vs Endotoxins- Definition and 29 Major Difference

Differences between Exotoxins and Endotoxins

Differences between Exotoxins and Endotoxins Toxins are small molecules, peptides, or proteins produced by living cells that are capable of causing diseases or structural damage when they come in contact or are absorbed by tissues. Toxins and enzymes play an important role in the pathogenicity of pathogenic bacteria. Toxins may aid in invasiveness, damage cells, inhibit cellular processes, or trigger immune response and damage. Toxins are of two types: Exotoxins and Endotoxins. S.N. Character Exotoxins Endotoxins 1.       Definition Proteins produced … Read more

Primary vs Secondary Metabolites- Definition, 12 Differences, Examples

Differences between Primary Metabolites & Secondary Metabolites

Primary Metabolites Definition Primary metabolites are the compounds that are directly involved in the metabolic pathways of an organism necessary for its growth, development, and reproduction. These metabolites are associated with the physiological processes occurring in the organism. Primary metabolites are produced in the organism during the growth phase, as a result of the growth mechanism. The growth phase associated with the production of primary metabolites is termed as ‘trophophase’. The production of primary metabolites is initiated when the nutrients … Read more

Carbohydrate Fermentation Test (Sugar Fermentation Test)

Carbohydrate fermentation test

What is Carbohydrate fermentation test ? Carbohydrates are organic molecules that comprise carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in the ratio (CH2O)n. There are three types of carbohydrates based on their structure and number of carbon atoms present, they are monosaccharides (simple sugar containing 3-7 carbon atoms), disaccharides (comprising of two monosaccharides linked together by the glycosidic bond), polysaccharides (containing eight or more monosaccharide molecules). The energy is released by the process of catabolism referring to the breakdown of the complex organic … Read more

Saturated vs Unsaturated fatty acids- Definition, 20 Differences, Examples

Differences Between Saturated and Unsaturated fatty acids

Figure: Differences Between Saturated and Unsaturated fatty acids. Image Source: BioNinja. Saturated fatty acids definition Saturated fatty acids are the simplest form of fats that are unbranched linear chains of CH2 groups linked together by carbon-carbon single bonds with a terminal carboxylic acid. The term ‘saturated’ is used to indicate that the maximum number of hydrogen atoms are bonded to each carbon atom in a molecule of fat. The general formula for these acids is CnH2n+1COOH. Fatty acids obtained from … Read more

Proteins- Definition, Properties, Structure, Classification, Functions

Proteins- Properties, Structure, Classification and Functions

What are Proteins? Proteins are the most abundant biological macromolecules, occurring in all cells. It is also the most versatile organic molecule of the living systems and occurs in great variety; thousands of different kinds, ranging in size from relatively small peptides to large polymers. Proteins are the polymers of amino acids covalently linked by the peptide bonds. The building blocks of proteins are the twenty naturally occurring amino acids. Thus, proteins are the polymers of amino acids. Properties of … Read more

Carbohydrates- Definition, Structure, Types, Examples, Functions

Classification of Carbohydrates

What are Carbohydrates? Carbohydrates are a group of naturally occurring carbonyl compounds (aldehydes or ketones) that also contain several hydroxyl groups. It may also include their derivatives which produce such compounds on hydrolysis. They are the most abundant organic molecules in nature and are also referred to as “saccharides”. The carbohydrates which are soluble in water and sweet in taste are called “sugars”. Structure of Carbohydrates Carbohydrates consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The general empirical structure for carbohydrates is … Read more

Biuret Test for Protein- Definition, Principle, Procedure, Results, Uses

Biuret Test for Protein

What is Biuret Test? Proteins are complex compounds formed by thousands of amino acids. Amino acids are amphoteric electrolytes having carboxyl and amino groups that act like acid and base. It has one positive charge and one negative charge, hence these ions are electrically neutral and do not migrate in the electric field. The two amino acids are linked together with the help of a bond called peptide bond and it yields dipeptide. The bond is formed between the α … Read more

Amino Acids- Definition, Properties, Structure, Classification, Functions

Amino Acids

What are Amino Acids? Amino acids constitute a group of neutral products clearly distinguished from other natural compounds chemically, mainly because of their ampholytic properties, and biochemically, mainly because of their role as protein constituents. An amino acid is a carboxylic acid-containing an aliphatic primary amino group in the α position to the carboxyl group and with a characteristic stereochemistry. Proteins are biosynthesized from 20 amino acids in a system involving strict genetic control. Thus, amino acids are the basic … Read more

Alpha Oxidation- Definition, Location, Pathway, Steps, Significance

Alpha Oxidation

What is Alpha Oxidation? Alpha – oxidation is defined as the oxidation of fatty acid (methyl group at beta carbon) with the removal of one carbon unit adjacent to the α-carbon from the carboxylic end. The carbon unit is removed in the form of CO2. Alpha oxidation occurs in those fatty acids that have a methyl group (-CH3) at the beta-carbon, which blocks beta oxidation. There is no production of ATP. Location Peroxisomes are the cellular sites for α-oxidation. Substrate: … Read more

Buffer and Extraction Buffer- Definition, Components, Significance

Buffer and Extraction Buffer

A buffer is an aqueous solution consisting of a mixture of a weak acid and its salt (acidic buffer) or a weak base and its salt (basic buffer) that resists a change in pH on the addition of either acid or base. Its pH changes very little when a small amount of strong acid or base is added to it and thus it is used to prevent changes in the pH of a solution. In practice, a buffer solution consists … Read more