Peptide bond- definition, formation, degradation, examples

Peptide bond

What is a peptide? A peptide is a short-chain made up of amino acid which, together with other peptides, forms a protein. The number of amino acids in a peptide can range from two amino acids to fifty amino acids. Based on the number of amino acids present in the peptide, peptides are of many … Read more Peptide bond- definition, formation, degradation, examples

Krebs cycle / Citric acid cycle / TCA Cycle with steps and diagram

Krebs cycle

Krebs cycle Definition The Krebs cycle, also known as the citric acid cycle or TCA cycle is a series of reactions that take place in the mitochondria resulting in oxidation of acetyl CoA to release carbon dioxide and hydrogen atoms that later lead to the formation of water. This cycle is termed the citric acid … Read more Krebs cycle / Citric acid cycle / TCA Cycle with steps and diagram

Electron transport chain- definition, components, steps & FAQs

Electron Transport Chain

Electron Transport Chain Definition The Electron Transport System also called the Electron Transport Chain, is a chain of reactions that converts redox energy available from oxidation of NADH and FADH2, into proton-motive force which is used to synthesize ATP through conformational changes in the ATP synthase complex through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. Oxidative phosphorylation … Read more Electron transport chain- definition, components, steps & FAQs

Glycolysis- definition, equation, enzymes, 10 Steps with diagram

Glycolysis- definition, equation, enzymes, 10 Steps with diagram

Glycolysis Definition Glycolysis is the central pathway for the glucose catabolism in which glucose (6-carbon compound) is converted into pyruvate (3-carbon compound) through a sequence of 10 steps. Glycolysis takes place in both aerobic and anaerobic organisms and is the first step towards the metabolism of glucose. The glycolytic sequence of reactions differs from one … Read more Glycolysis- definition, equation, enzymes, 10 Steps with diagram

Ketones in urine (ketonuria) and Ketones in urine test

Ketones in urine (ketonuria) and Ketones in urine test

What are ketones? Chemically, ketones are the organic compounds containing carbon, oxygen various carbon-containing substituents. Ketones consist of a carbonyl (C=O) functional group. In our body, ketones are the metabolic end products of fatty acid metabolism. What are ketone bodies? Ketone bodies are the water-soluble particles formed in the liver when the acetyl-CoA formed in the … Read more Ketones in urine (ketonuria) and Ketones in urine test

Henderson Hasselbalch Equation

Henderson-Hasselbalch-Equation

Henderson Hasselbalch Equation Definition The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation is the equation commonly used in chemistry and biology to determine the pH of a solution. This equation shows a relationship between the pH or pOH of the solution, the pKa or pKb, and the concentration of the chemical species involved. This equation was developed independently by the … Read more Henderson Hasselbalch Equation

Biuret Test for Protein

Biuret Test for Protein

What does Biuret test for? Proteins are the complex compound formed by thousands of amino acids. Amino acids are amphoteric electrolytes having carboxyl and amino groups that act like acid and base. It has one positive charge and one negative charge, hence these ions are electrically neutral and do not migrate in the electric field. … Read more Biuret Test for Protein

Carbohydrate Fermentation Test | Sugar Fermentation Test

Carbohydrate fermentation test

Introduction Carbohydrates are organic molecules that comprise carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in the ratio (CH2O)n. There are three types of carbohydrates based on their structure and number of carbon atoms present, they are monosaccharides (simple sugar containing 3-7 carbon atoms), disaccharides (comprising of two monosaccharides linked together by the glycosidic bond), polysaccharides (containing eight or … Read more Carbohydrate Fermentation Test | Sugar Fermentation Test

Benedict’s Test- Objectives, Principle, Procedure, Results

Observation (Results) of Benedict’s Test

There are generally two types of sugar namely reducing and non-reducing sugar based on their reducing property. All the monosaccharides are reducing sugars as they have free anomeric carbon in their structure (free aldehyde group or a free ketone group) that can reduce cupric salt. However, in the disaccharides, the monosaccharide unit is linked together … Read more Benedict’s Test- Objectives, Principle, Procedure, Results

Passive Transport

Passive Transport

Passive Transport Plasma membranes must allow certain substances to enter and leave a cell, and prevent some harmful materials from entering and some essential materials from leaving. In other words, plasma membranes are selectively permeable—they allow some substances to pass through, but not others. If they were to lose this selectivity, the cell would no longer … Read more Passive Transport