Ketones in urine (ketonuria) and Ketones in urine test

Ketones in urine (ketonuria) and Ketones in urine test

What are ketones? Chemically, ketones are the organic compounds containing carbon, oxygen various carbon-containing substituents. Ketones consist of a carbonyl (C=O) functional group. In our body, ketones are the metabolic end products of fatty acid metabolism. What are ketone bodies? Ketone bodies are the water-soluble particles formed in the liver when the acetyl-CoA formed in the … Read more Ketones in urine (ketonuria) and Ketones in urine test

Henderson Hasselbalch Equation

Henderson-Hasselbalch-Equation

Henderson Hasselbalch Equation Definition The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation is the equation commonly used in chemistry and biology to determine the pH of a solution. This equation shows a relationship between the pH or pOH of the solution, the pKa or pKb, and the concentration of the chemical species involved. This equation was developed independently by the … Read more Henderson Hasselbalch Equation

Biuret Test for Protein

Biuret Test for Protein

What does Biuret test for? Proteins are the complex compound formed by thousands of amino acids. Amino acids are amphoteric electrolytes having carboxyl and amino groups that act like acid and base. It has one positive charge and one negative charge, hence these ions are electrically neutral and do not migrate in the electric field. … Read more Biuret Test for Protein

Carbohydrate Fermentation Test | Sugar Fermentation Test

Carbohydrate fermentation test

Introduction Carbohydrates are organic molecules that comprise carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in the ratio (CH2O)n. There are three types of carbohydrates based on their structure and number of carbon atoms present, they are monosaccharides (simple sugar containing 3-7 carbon atoms), disaccharides (comprising of two monosaccharides linked together by the glycosidic bond), polysaccharides (containing eight or … Read more Carbohydrate Fermentation Test | Sugar Fermentation Test

Benedict’s Test- Objectives, Principle, Procedure, Results

Observation (Results) of Benedict’s Test

There are generally two types of sugar namely reducing and non-reducing sugar based on their reducing property. All the monosaccharides are reducing sugars as they have free anomeric carbon in their structure (free aldehyde group or a free ketone group) that can reduce cupric salt. However, in the disaccharides, the monosaccharide unit is linked together … Read more Benedict’s Test- Objectives, Principle, Procedure, Results

Passive Transport

Passive Transport

Passive Transport Plasma membranes must allow certain substances to enter and leave a cell, and prevent some harmful materials from entering and some essential materials from leaving. In other words, plasma membranes are selectively permeable—they allow some substances to pass through, but not others. If they were to lose this selectivity, the cell would no longer … Read more Passive Transport

Membrane Proteins

Membrane Proteins

Membrane Proteins Biological membranes consist of a continuous double layer of lipid molecules in which membrane proteins are embedded. Although the lipid bilayer provides the basic structure of biological membranes, the membrane proteins perform most of the membrane’s specific tasks and therefore give each type of cell membrane its characteristic functional properties. The amounts and … Read more Membrane Proteins

Membrane Lipids

Membrane Lipids

Membrane Lipids Biological membranes consist of a lipid bilayer to which proteins and carbohydrates may be associated or covalently linked. Membrane lipids are lipids involved in forming the structure of biological membranes – both the cell membrane and intracellular membranes – and in membrane function, namely compartmentalization of biological processes. Membrane lipids consist primarily of … Read more Membrane Lipids

Carbohydrates – Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates definition Carbohydrates are molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. There are twice as many hydrogen atoms as carbon or oxygen atoms. The general formula for a carbohydrate can be written as Cx(H2O)y. They act as the source of energy (e.g. glucose), as a store of energy (e.g. starch and glycogen) and as structural … Read more Carbohydrates – Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides

Active Transport- Types and Significance

Types of Active Transport

Active Transport- Types and Significance To sustain life, many substances need to be transported into, out of, and between cells. In some cases, this can be accomplished through passive transport, which uses no energy. In many cases, however, the cell needs to transport something against its concentration gradient. In these cases, active transport is required. Active transport mechanisms require … Read more Active Transport- Types and Significance