Questionnaires and Schedules

Questionnaires and Schedules

Questionnaires and Schedules The research process is incomplete without the collection of data, which starts after the identification of the research problems and chalking out research design. There are several methods involved in the collection of primary data, like observation, interviews, questionnaires, schedules, etc. Both questionnaire and schedule are popularly used methods of collecting data … Read moreQuestionnaires and Schedules

Mode of Transmission of Diseases

Mode of Transmission of Diseases

Mode of Transmission of Diseases The traditional epidemiologic triad model holds that infectious diseases result from the interaction of agent, host, and environment. More specifically, transmission occurs when the agent leaves its reservoir or host through a portal of exit, is conveyed by some mode of transmission, and enters through an appropriate portal of entry to infect a susceptible host.  An infectious … Read moreMode of Transmission of Diseases

Top and Best Microbiology Universities in Germany

Top and Best Microbiology Universities in Germany

Top and Best Microbiology Universities in Germany University Logo Source: Respective Universities Website. P.S.: Logo are only used for educational purposes. If there are any copyright issues regarding logo of the universities, please email us at microbenotes@gmail.com. The subject rankings are powered by Clarivate Analytics InCites. Clarivate provided the data and metrics used in the … Read moreTop and Best Microbiology Universities in Germany

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) The Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), is also alternatively referred to as verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC), and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). All members of this group are defined by the presence of Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) or 2 (Stx2). Some but not all EHEC strains are LEE positive and form … Read moreShiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)

Membrane Lipids

Membrane Lipids

Membrane Lipids Biological membranes consist of a lipid bilayer to which proteins and carbohydrates may be associated or covalently linked. Membrane lipids are lipids involved in forming the structure of biological membranes – both the cell membrane and intracellular membranes – and in membrane function, namely compartmentalization of biological processes. Membrane lipids consist primarily of … Read moreMembrane Lipids

Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC)

Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC)

Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) is defined as containing the E. coli strains that elaborate at least one member of two defined groups of enterotoxins: heat-stable toxin (ST) and heat-stable toxin (LT). Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, or ETEC, is thus the name given to a group of E. coli that produces special toxins that stimulate the lining … Read moreEnterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC)

Epidemiologic Triad- Agent, Host, Environment

Epidemiologic Triad- Agent, Host, Environment

Epidemiologic Triad- Agent, Host, Environment The germ theory of disease is the currently accepted scientific theory for many diseases. It states that microorganisms known as pathogens or “germs” can lead to disease. However, the germ theory of disease has many limitations. For example, it is well-known, that not everyone exposed to tuberculosis develops tuberculosis. The same exposure, however, in an undernourished or otherwise susceptible … Read moreEpidemiologic Triad- Agent, Host, Environment

Biochemical Test of Burkholderia cepacia

Biochemical Test of Burkholderia cepacia

Biochemical Test of Burkholderia cepacia a: Burkholderia cepacia ATCC (Image Source: ATCC) b: Burkholderia cepacia (Image Source: Rapid Microbiology) c: Burkholderia cepacia (Image Source: OMICS International) d: Burkholderia cepacia complex from respiratory secretions of patients with cystic fibrosis (Image Source: Thermo Scientific) e: Scanning Electron Micrograph of Burkholderia cepacia (Image Source: Wikipedia) f: Burkholderia cepacia … Read moreBiochemical Test of Burkholderia cepacia

New York City Agar

New York City Agar

Introduction NYC Agar Base medium was originally developed by Fauer, Weisburd and Wilson at the New York City Department of Health for selective isolation of pathogenic Neisseria species from clinical specimens. NYC medium, primarily designed for isolation of pathogenic Neisseria, also readily supports the growth of large-colony mycoplasmas and T-mycoplasmas (Ureaplasma). It is a transparent medium, … Read moreNew York City Agar

Sensitivity and Specificity

Sensitivity and Specificity

Sensitivity and Specificity When developing diagnostic tests or evaluating results, it is important to understand how reliable those tests and therefore the results obtained are. By using samples of known disease status, values such as sensitivity and specificity can be calculated that allow its evaluation. Therefore, when evaluating diagnostic tests, it is important to calculate … Read moreSensitivity and Specificity