Rhizospheric microorganisms and effects, PGPR and Mycorrhiza

Microorganisms found in Rhizosphere (Rhizosphere microbiome)

What is Rhizosphere? The rhizosphere is the narrow region of soil around the plant root that is influenced by several factors like the root exudates and the associated soil microorganisms. The rhizosphere is considered the most active region of soil as it receives the nutrients from the nutrients, in addition to the microorganisms that are present around the root. It is a dynamic environment fluctuating with the stages of root growth and senescence. Rhizosphere as a region was defined more … Read more

Agrobacterium-Mediated Gene Transfer (Transformation) in Plants

Agrobacterium-Mediated Gene Transfer (Transformation) in Plants

What is Agrobacterium? Agrobacterium is a phytopathogen that infects plants through wound sites, causing crown gall disease, and is one of the most popular plant transformation tools used in agriculture to date. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is the soil pathogen that utilizes its bacterial type IV secretion system for the transfer of its transferred (T)-DNA into the host cells. The genus Agrobacterium consists of different species depending on their disease symptomology and host range. Some of the species of Agrobacterium include A. … Read more

Organic waste recycling (methods, steps, significance, barriers)

Organic waste recycling

What are organic wastes? Organic wastes are materials originating from living sources like plants, animals, and microorganisms that are biodegradable and can be broken down into simpler organic molecules. Organic wastes produced in nature by various means can exist either in a solid-state or liquid state. Solid organic waste is primarily understood as organic-biodegradable waste, and it contains about 80-85% moisture content. The most common sources of organic wastes include agriculture, household activities, and industrial products. Green waste like food … Read more

Microbial degradation of pectin (Enzymes, Steps, Mechanisms)

Structure of pectin

What is pectin? Pectin is a complex heteropolysaccharide composed of linear chains of α-D-galacturonic acid or other similar sugar derivatives, commonly found in plant cell walls as cementing material. Pectin often remains associated with other cell wall polysaccharides like cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. The highest concentration of pectin is found in the primary cell wall and middle lamella of plant cells with decreasing concentration towards the plasma membrane. Pectin is responsible for providing firmness and structure to the cell wall … Read more

Microbial degradation of lignin (Enzymes, Steps, Mechanisms)

Microbial degradation of lignin

What is lignin? Lignin is a group of complex aromatic polymers resulting from the oxidative combination of 4-hydroxyphenylpropanoids. Lignin is a phenolic polymer that is amorphous, irregular three-dimensional, and high branches. The process of biosynthesis of lignin results from the radical coupling reactions of monomers to form cross-linked phenol polymer. Lignin is an essential component of the lignocellulosic biomass where it accounts for about 15-30% of the total weight. It is the most abundant aromatic biopolymer that consists of about … Read more

Microbial degradation of chitin (Enzymes, Steps, Mechanisms)

Microbial degradation of chitin

What is chitin? Chitin is a complex homopolysaccharide consisting of units of amino sugar glucosamine that accounts for the second most abundant polysaccharide of nature after cellulose. It is widely distributed in nature, found in the cell walls of fungi, the exoskeleton of arthropods, and certain structures of other invertebrates. Chitin, like cellulose, doesn’t accumulate in the biosphere as a result of the extensive hydrolytic activity of soil microorganisms. Chitin is associated covalently or non-covalently with other structural molecules as … Read more

Microbial degradation of hemicellulose (Enzymes, Steps, Mechanisms)

Microbial degradation of hemicellulose

What is hemicellulose? Hemicellulose is a group of complex polysaccharides that are found in the fibers of plants along with other polysaccharides like cellulose and pectin. Hemicellulose consists of a heterogeneous group of carbohydrates where the structures of these carbohydrates are not clearly understood. The structures and physicochemical properties of polysaccharides are very different from each other. Hemicelluloses are not structurally related to cellulose, nor do they contain the same building blocks but they are partially soluble in water or … Read more

Microbial degradation of cellulose (Enzymes, Steps, Mechanisms)

Microbial degradation of cellulose (Enzymes, Steps, Mechanisms)

What is cellulose? Cellulose is an organic polysaccharide composed of a linear chain of hundreds of β-linked D-glucose units. Figure: Cellulose, a linear polymer of D-glucose units (two are shown) linked by β(1→4)-glycosidic bonds. Image Source: NEUROtiker. Cellulose is the most abundant extracellular structural polysaccharide or organic polymer of all biomolecules in the biosphere. Cellulose is present in all land plants but is completely lacking in meat, egg, fish, and milk. It is, however, not metabolized by the human system. … Read more

Phyllosphere microorganisms- Examples, Factors, Effects

Phyllosphere microorganisms- Examples, Factors, Effects

What is Phyllosphere? Phyllosphere is the aerial part or parts of the plant above the ground like the leaves, stems, and flowers that acts as a habitat for a variety of microorganisms. The phyllosphere comprises the aerial parts of plants and is dominated by the leaves followed by stems, flowers, and fruits. The phyllosphere is a unique and dynamic habitat constituting irregular, and sometimes relatively large microbial community inhabitants in the ecosystem. Although the phyllosphere has been less intensively studied … Read more

Microorganisms found in soil with effects and examples

Microorganisms found in soil

What is Soil Microbiology? Soil microbiology is a branch of soil science concerned with soil-inhabiting microorganisms, their functions, and activities within the soil ecosystem. Soil microbiology is an interdisciplinary subject that is closely linked to soil biochemistry and microbial ecology. It involves the understanding of principles of soil science, microbiology, and the chemistry of biological systems. There are two basic approaches to soil microbiology. The first approach is to study the organisms by examining their physiology and taxonomy and the … Read more