Organic waste recycling (methods, steps, significance, barriers)

Organic waste recycling

What are organic wastes? Organic wastes are materials originating from living sources like plants, animals, and microorganisms that are biodegradable and can be broken down into simpler organic molecules. Organic wastes produced in nature by various means can exist either in a solid-state or liquid state. Solid organic waste is primarily understood as organic-biodegradable waste, and it contains about 80-85% …

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Microbial degradation of pectin (Enzymes, Steps, Mechanisms)

Structure of pectin

What is pectin? Pectin is a complex heteropolysaccharide composed of linear chains of α-D-galacturonic acid or other similar sugar derivatives, commonly found in plant cell walls as cementing material. Pectin often remains associated with other cell wall polysaccharides like cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. The highest concentration of pectin is found in the primary cell wall and middle lamella of plant …

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Microbial degradation of lignin (Enzymes, Steps, Mechanisms)

Microbial degradation of lignin

What is lignin? Lignin is a group of complex aromatic polymers resulting from the oxidative combination of 4-hydroxyphenylpropanoids. Lignin is a phenolic polymer that is amorphous, irregular three-dimensional, and high branches. The process of biosynthesis of lignin results from the radical coupling reactions of monomers to form cross-linked phenol polymer. Lignin is an essential component of the lignocellulosic biomass where …

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Microbial degradation of chitin (Enzymes, Steps, Mechanisms)

Microbial degradation of chitin

What is chitin? Chitin is a complex homopolysaccharide consisting of units of amino sugar glucosamine that accounts for the second most abundant polysaccharide of nature after cellulose. It is widely distributed in nature, found in the cell walls of fungi, the exoskeleton of arthropods, and certain structures of other invertebrates. Chitin, like cellulose, doesn’t accumulate in the biosphere as a …

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Microbial degradation of hemicellulose (Enzymes, Steps, Mechanisms)

Microbial degradation of hemicellulose

What is hemicellulose? Hemicellulose is a group of complex polysaccharides that are found in the fibers of plants along with other polysaccharides like cellulose and pectin. Hemicellulose consists of a heterogeneous group of carbohydrates where the structures of these carbohydrates are not clearly understood. The structures and physicochemical properties of polysaccharides are very different from each other. Hemicelluloses are not …

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Microbial degradation of cellulose (Enzymes, Steps, Mechanisms)

Microbial degradation of cellulose (Enzymes, Steps, Mechanisms)

What is cellulose? Cellulose is an organic polysaccharide composed of a linear chain of hundreds of β-linked D-glucose units. Figure: Cellulose, a linear polymer of D-glucose units (two are shown) linked by β(1→4)-glycosidic bonds. Image Source: NEUROtiker. Cellulose is the most abundant extracellular structural polysaccharide or organic polymer of all biomolecules in the biosphere. Cellulose is present in all land …

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Phyllosphere microorganisms- Examples, Factors, Effects

Phyllosphere microorganisms- Examples, Factors, Effects

What is Phyllosphere? Phyllosphere is the aerial part or parts of the plant above the ground like the leaves, stems, and flowers that acts as a habitat for a variety of microorganisms. The phyllosphere comprises the aerial parts of plants and is dominated by the leaves followed by stems, flowers, and fruits. The phyllosphere is a unique and dynamic habitat …

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Rhizospheric microorganisms and effects, PGPR and Mycorrhiza

Microorganisms found in Rhizosphere (Rhizosphere microbiome)

What is Rhizosphere? The rhizosphere is the narrow region of soil around the plant root that is influenced by several factors like the root exudates and the associated soil microorganisms. The rhizosphere is considered the most active region of soil as it receives the nutrients from the nutrients, in addition to the microorganisms that are present around the root. It …

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Microorganisms found in soil with effects and examples

Microorganisms found in soil

What is Soil Microbiology? Soil microbiology is a branch of soil science concerned with soil-inhabiting microorganisms, their functions, and activities within the soil ecosystem. Soil microbiology is an interdisciplinary subject that is closely linked to soil biochemistry and microbial ecology. It involves the understanding of principles of soil science, microbiology, and the chemistry of biological systems. There are two basic …

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Soil Formation (Pedogenesis)- Factors, Process/Steps, Examples

Soil Formation (Pedogenesis)

Soil Formation Definition Soil formation or pedogenesis is the process of evolution of soil under the influence of various physical, biological, climatic, and geological factors. Soil formation occurs via a series of changes to the parent material, all of which lead to the formation of layers of soil, also called soil horizons. These layers can then be separated on the …

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