17 Differences Between Natural and Artificial Selection

Differences Between Natural and Artificial Selection

Natural selection definition Natural selection is a process of adaptation by an organism to the changing environment by bringing selective changes to its genotype or genetic composition. Natural selection is one of the four primary mechanisms of evolution, along with mutation, genetic drift, and migration. Charles Darwin popularized the concept of natural selection during his studies on evolution. According to …

Read more17 Differences Between Natural and Artificial Selection

10 differences between Phenotype and Genotype with examples

Differences between Phenotype and Genotype

Phenotype Definition Phenotype is a term used in genetics to refer to all the observable traits in organisms as a result of the interaction of the genotype with the environment. The term ‘pheno’ in ‘phenotype’ refers to ‘observe’ and thus phenotype is used to indicate the observable characteristics in organisms like its height and color. The phenotype of an organism …

Read more10 differences between Phenotype and Genotype with examples

10 differences between Incomplete dominance and Co-dominance

Differences between Incomplete dominance and Co-dominance

Image Source: Spencerbaron and YassineMrabet. Incomplete dominance definition Incomplete dominance is a mechanism of dominance in heterozygotes, where the dominant allele does not entirely overcome the phenotypic expression of the recessive allele, and there occurs an intermediate phenotype in the heterozygote. Incomplete dominance is also called partial dominance or semi-dominance as the phenotype resulting from the genotype is a blend …

Read more10 differences between Incomplete dominance and Co-dominance

10 differences between Homozygous and Heterozygous

Differences between Homozygous and Heterozygous

Homozygous Definition Homozygous is a genetic condition where an individual inherits the same alleles of a gene from both the parents. In homozygous chromosomes, both alleles are either dominant or recessive. The dominant trait is represented by two capital letters (XX) and the recessive trait is represented by two lowercase letters (xx). Homozygous-dominant chromosomes carry two copies of the allele …

Read more10 differences between Homozygous and Heterozygous

16 Differences Between Heterochromatin and Euchromatin

Differences Between Heterochromatin and Euchromatin

Heterochromatin Definition Heterochromatin is a tightly packed or condensed DNA that is characterized by intense stains when stained with nuclear stains, containing transcriptionally inactive sequences. It exists in multiple variations, up to four to five state, each of which is marked with combinations of epigenetic markers. The staining of heterochromatin might result in heteropycnosis; heteropycnosis is the differential staining of …

Read more16 Differences Between Heterochromatin and Euchromatin

11 differences between Chromosome and Chromatid

Differences between Chromosome and Chromatid (Chromosome vs Chromatid)

Chromosome Definition A chromosome is a thread-like structure present in the nucleus or nuclear region of the cytoplasm that is made up of a single molecule of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) and proteins, carrying some or all genetic materials of an organism. These chromosomes are only visible under the light microscope during the metaphase of the cell cycle where the chromosomes …

Read more11 differences between Chromosome and Chromatid

Epidemiological Markers

Phenotypic and Genetic Markers

Epidemiological Markers Epidemiological markers are biological markers that are used to characterize microorganisms or discriminate between genomes based on the genetic variation among microbial isolates. Uses of Epidemiological Markers Epidemiological markers are mostly used for strain typing. It is used to: Classify isolates of microorganisms Catalogue genetic variation Define relatedness or lack of it between microbial species or genera It …

Read moreEpidemiological Markers

Non-Mendelian Inheritance

Non-Mendelian Inheritance

Non-Mendelian Inheritance Mendelian inheritance patterns involve genes that directly influence the outcome of an organism’s traits and obey Mendel’s laws. Most genes in eukaryotic species follow a Mendelian pattern of inheritance. However, there are many that do not. Non-Mendelian inheritance is a general term that refers to any pattern of inheritance in which traits do not segregate in accordance with Mendel’s laws. …

Read moreNon-Mendelian Inheritance

Extranuclear Inheritance- Cytoplasmic Factors and Types

Extranuclear Inheritance

Extranuclear Inheritance- Cytoplasmic Factors and Types Though, the genes of nuclear chromosomes have a significant and key role in the inheritance of almost all traits from generations to generations, they altogether cannot be considered as the sole vehicles of inheritance. Certain experimental evidences suggest the occurrence of certain extranuclear genes or DNA molecules in the cytoplasm of many prokaryotic and …

Read moreExtranuclear Inheritance- Cytoplasmic Factors and Types

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium The Hardy–Weinberg principle, also known as the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, model, theorem, or law explains that allele and genotype frequencies in a population will remain constant from generation to generation in the absence of other evolutionary influences. The law was proposed by a British mathematician Hardy and a German physician Weinberg (1908) independently. Both the ideas together is called as the Hardy-Weinberg law equilibrium …

Read moreHardy-Weinberg Equilibrium