Types of Centrifuge & Centrifugation (definition, principle, uses)

Types of Centrifuge and Centrifugation

Centrifuge definition A centrifuge is a device used to separate components of a mixture on the basis of their size, density, the viscosity of the medium, and the rotor speed. The centrifuge is commonly used in laboratories for the separation of biological molecules from a crude extract. In a centrifuge, the sample is kept in … Read more Types of Centrifuge & Centrifugation (definition, principle, uses)

Prokaryotic cells- characteristics, structure, division, examples

Prokaryotic cells- characteristics, structure, division, examples

Definition of prokaryotic cells Prokaryotic cells are single-celled entities that are primitive in structure and function as they lack a membrane-bound nucleus and other organelles. The term “prokaryote” is derived from two Greek words, ‘pro’ meaning ‘before’ and ‘karyon’ meaning ‘nucleus’. Prokaryotes are considered to be the first living organisms of the earth as they … Read more Prokaryotic cells- characteristics, structure, division, examples

Autoclave- definition, parts, principle, procedure, types, uses

Autoclave- definition, parts, principle, procedure, types, uses

Autoclave Definition An autoclave is a machine that provides a physical method of sterilization by killing bacteria, viruses, and even spores present in the material put inside of the vessel using steam under pressure. Autoclave sterilizes the materials by heating them up to a particular temperature for a specific period of time. The autoclave is … Read more Autoclave- definition, parts, principle, procedure, types, uses

Incubator- Definition, Parts, Working, Types, Uses, Precautions

Types of incubators

Incubator Definition Incubator, in microbiology, is an insulated and enclosed device that provides an optimal condition of temperature, humidity, and other environmental conditions required for the growth of organisms. An incubator is a piece of vital laboratory equipment necessary for the cultivation of microorganisms under artificial conditions. An incubator can be used for the cultivation … Read more Incubator- Definition, Parts, Working, Types, Uses, Precautions

Serial dilution- definition, formula, calculator, procedure, uses

Serial dilution procedure

Serial dilution Definition Serial dilution, as the name suggests, is a series of sequential dilutions that are performed to convert a dense solution into a more usable concentration. In simple words, serial dilution is the process of stepwise dilution of a solution with an associated dilution factor. In biology, serial dilution is often associated with … Read more Serial dilution- definition, formula, calculator, procedure, uses

Chemical methods of sterilization- Gaseous and Liquid

Chemical methods of sterilization

What is Chemical Sterilization? Chemical Sterilization is the process of removal of microorganisms by the use of chemical bactericidal agents. Even if physical methods of sterilization are more appropriate for effective sterilization, it is not always appropriate to use for heat-sensitive materials like plastics, fiber optics, and biological specimens. Under such conditions, chemical either in … Read more Chemical methods of sterilization- Gaseous and Liquid

Physical methods of sterilization- Heat, Filtration, Radiation

Physical methods of sterilization- Heat, Filtration, Radiation

What is Sterilization? Sterilization is the complete removal of microorganisms from an object or surfaces. Sterilization is obtained when microorganisms are subjected to antimicrobial agents for sufficient time and at optimum conditions. Figure: Physical methods of sterilization. Image created using biorender.com Some physical methods associated with sterilization are explained below: Heat Sterilization Heat sterilization is … Read more Physical methods of sterilization- Heat, Filtration, Radiation

Bacterial Sizes, Shapes and Arrangement with Examples

Bacterial Sizes, Shapes and Arrangement with Examples

Bacteria are a type of biological cell that is prokaryotic and unicellular. Due to the lack of a membrane-bound nucleus, these are simpler than other types of living organisms. Although only some of them can be seen by naked eyes while the rest are microscopic, they display a wide range of shape, size, and structure. … Read more Bacterial Sizes, Shapes and Arrangement with Examples

McFarland Standards- Principle, Preparation, Uses, Limitations

McFarland Standards- Principle, Preparation, Uses, Limitations

What is McFarland Standards? McFarland Standards are used as the reference in order to adjust the turbidity of the liquid/ bacterial suspension in the vial or tube in the microbiology laboratory. It helps to maintain and/or ensure that the number of bacteria will be within a given range to standardize microbial testing. The McFarland standard … Read more McFarland Standards- Principle, Preparation, Uses, Limitations

Instruments used in Microbiology Lab with Principle and Uses

Instruments used in Microbiology Lab with Principle and Uses

The instruments used in the microbiology labs include a bunch of different kinds of instruments required for a lot of different processes conducted within those laboratories. Figure: Instruments used in Microbiology Lab with Principle and Uses. Image created with biorender.com 1. Analytical Balance An analytical balance is a type of balance that is commonly used … Read more Instruments used in Microbiology Lab with Principle and Uses

Types of PCR (Polymerase chain reaction) – definition and uses

Types of PCR (Polymerase chain reaction)- definition and uses

List of Types of PCR Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) PCR Allele-specific PCR Alu PCR Assembly PCR Asymmetric PCR COLD PCR Colony PCR Conventional PCR Digital PCR (dPCR) Fast-cycling PCR High-fidelity PCR High-Resolution Melt (HRM) PCR Hot-start PCR In situ PCR Intersequence-specific (ISSR) PCR Inverse PCR LATE (linear after the exponential) PCR Ligation-mediated PCR Long-range … Read more Types of PCR (Polymerase chain reaction) – definition and uses

What is Sensitivity, Specificity, False positive, False negative?

What is Sensitivity, Specificity, False positive, False negative

These are terms that are fundamental to understanding the utility of clinical tests. They are the most essential variables when designing diagnostic tests, in determining how reliable the tests are and also how reliable the results obtained from the results are. When using known samples of a disease, sensitivity and specificity variables can be calculated … Read more What is Sensitivity, Specificity, False positive, False negative?