Cilia- Definition, Structure, Formation, Types, Functions, Examples

Cilia

Cilia Definition Cilia are tiny hair-like appendages present on the eukaryotic cell surface that provides a means of locomotion to different protozoans and animals. The term ‘cilia’ is a Latin term meaning eyelash indicating the tiny eyelash-like appearance of the structure. Cilia are most prominent in protozoans of the phylum Ciliophora which are characterized by the presence of cilia. Ciliated …

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Flagella- Definition, Structure, Types, Arrangement, Functions, Examples

Flagella

Flagella Definition A flagellum or flagella is a lash or hair-like structure present on the cell body that is important for different physiological functions of the cell. The term ‘flagellum’ is the Latin term for whip indicating the long slender structure of the flagellum that resembles a whip. Flagella are characteristic of the members of the protozoan group Mastigophora, but …

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Biosafety Cabinets- Definition, Classes (I, II, III) and Types

Biosafety Cabinets

Biosafety Cabinets Definition Biosafety Cabinets (BSCs) are enclosed workspaces with a ventilated hood that is designed to contain pathogenic microorganisms during microbiological processes. The primary purpose of biosafety cabinets is to protect the laboratory personnel and the environment from the pathogenic microorganism as aerosols might be formed during the processing of such microorganisms. Biosafety cabinets are only used for certain …

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Biosafety Levels (BSL-1, BSL-2, BSL-3 and BSL-4)

Biosafety Levels

Definition and Introduction Biosafety is the prevention of risk to human health and safety, and the conservation of the environment and the pathogen, as a result of the use for research and commerce of infectious or genetically modified organisms. Biosafety is an important concept in microbiology as bio-related research activities may involve manipulation of microbial, animal, or plant cells which …

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Laminar flow hood/cabinet- definition, parts, principle, types, uses

Laminar flow hood or cabinet

Definition A Laminar flow hood/cabinet is an enclosed workstation that is used to create a contamination-free work environment through filters to capture all the particles entering the cabinet. These cabinets are designed to protect the work from the environment and are most useful for the aseptic distribution of specific media and plate pouring. Laminar flow cabinets are similar to biosafety …

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Principles of Diagnosis with Medical Microbiology

Principles of Diagnosis with Medical Microbiology

For over 100 years, from the time Louis Pasteur (1822–1895) reformulated the germ hypothesis of illness, and Robert Koch (1843–1910) built up his renowned “proposes” for setting up the relationship of organisms to sickness, clinical microbiologists have been grinding away segregating and recognizing the causative specialists of contaminations. On a basic level, a large number of the techniques in like …

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Bacteria vs Fungi- Definition, 21 Major Differences, Examples

Differences between Bacteria and Fungi (Bacteria vs Fungi)

Bacteria Definition Bacteria are single-celled microscopic organisms that are characterized by the presence of incipient nucleus and few membrane-less cell organelles. Bacteria are diverse in shape, size, and color, and their habitats also vary ranging from soil, water, to the insides of living organisms. Bacteria exist in various shapes like cocci, bacillus, or spirilla where the cells are arranged in …

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Archaea vs Bacteria- Definition, 15 Major Differences, Examples

Differences between Archaea and Bacteria (Archaea vs Bacteria)

Image Source: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Created using biorender.com. Archaea Definition Archaea is a group of primitive prokaryotes that based on their distinct characteristics form a separate domain from bacteria and eukaryotes. The term ‘Archaea’ is derived from a Greek word, ‘archaios’ which means primitive or ancient, indicating the primitive structure of these organisms. These organisms usually inhabit extreme environments like …

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Types of Centrifuge and Centrifugation (definition, principle, uses)

Types of Centrifuge and Centrifugation

Centrifuge definition A centrifuge is a device used to separate components of a mixture on the basis of their size, density, the viscosity of the medium, and the rotor speed. The centrifuge is commonly used in laboratories for the separation of biological molecules from a crude extract. In a centrifuge, the sample is kept in a rotor that is rotated …

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Prokaryotic cells- characteristics, structure, division, examples

Prokaryotic cells- characteristics, structure, division, examples

Definition of prokaryotic cells Prokaryotic cells are single-celled entities that are primitive in structure and function as they lack a membrane-bound nucleus and other organelles. The term “prokaryote” is derived from two Greek words, ‘pro’ meaning ‘before’ and ‘karyon’ meaning ‘nucleus’. Prokaryotes are considered to be the first living organisms of the earth as they are the simplest form of …

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Autoclave- definition, parts, principle, procedure, types, uses

Autoclave- definition, parts, principle, procedure, types, uses

Autoclave Definition An autoclave is a machine that provides a physical method of sterilization by killing bacteria, viruses, and even spores present in the material put inside of the vessel using steam under pressure. Autoclave sterilizes the materials by heating them up to a particular temperature for a specific period of time. The autoclave is also called a steam sterilizer …

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Incubator- Definition, Parts, Working, Types, Uses, Precautions

Types of incubators

Incubator Definition Incubator, in microbiology, is an insulated and enclosed device that provides an optimal condition of temperature, humidity, and other environmental conditions required for the growth of organisms. An incubator is a piece of vital laboratory equipment necessary for the cultivation of microorganisms under artificial conditions. An incubator can be used for the cultivation of both unicellular and multicellular …

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Serial dilution- definition, formula, calculator, procedure, uses

Serial dilution procedure

Serial dilution Definition Serial dilution, as the name suggests, is a series of sequential dilutions that are performed to convert a dense solution into a more usable concentration. In simple words, serial dilution is the process of stepwise dilution of a solution with an associated dilution factor. In biology, serial dilution is often associated with reducing the concentration of cells …

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