T.U. B.Sc. 2nd Year Microbiology (Biochem, Biotech) Syllabus (Nepal)

T.U. B.Sc. 2nd Year Microbiology (Biochem, Biotech) Syllabus and Notes Link

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Description of the Course

Course Title: Biochemistry and Microbial Biotechnology

Full Marks: 100

Course No: MB 201 (Major)

Pass Marks: 35

Nature of the Course: Theory

Year: II

Total Lecture Hours: 150

Course Objectives

After completion of the course, the students will be able to:

a) understand cell and its functions, and macromolecules of living cells and their metabolism

b) understand the concept of biotechnology and genetic engineering and their applications

Course Contents

Living cell and understanding of its biochemical functions- 15 hrs

Origin of biochemistry and its relationship with other sciences, biochemical explanation of living things, the elements of life, chemical elements present in living organisms, organic compounds found in living cells, water: the solvent for life, cell biomembranes- structure and functions.

Macromolecules and biomolecules of living cells- 20 hrs

Introduction, functions, classification, structure, important properties of carbohydrates, amino acids, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids

Enzymes: nomenclature, classification, functions of enzymes, co-enzymes, cofactor and isozymes, enzyme kinetics, factors affecting the regulation of enzymes.

Microbial metabolism- 20 hrs

Concept of exergonic and endergonic reactions, heterotrophic and autotrophic metabolism, the role of ATP intermediary metabolism, heterotrophic generation of ATP in various pathways of carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, protein metabolism.

Microbial genetics- 20 hrs

Structure, types, and functions of DNA and RNA, replication of DNA, transcription, and translation, regulation of gene expressions, lac operon, genetic code.

Concept of biotechnology- 5 hrs

Definition and history, scope and importance, risk, and hazards of biotechnology.

Fermentation process- 15 hrs

Introduction, the solid-state fermentation, submerged state fermentation, fermentation industries, beer, ethanol, acetic acids, fermentor designs.

Agricultural microbial biotechnology- 15 hrs

Introduction, biofertilizer and composting, plant tissue culture, micropropagation, and disease-free plants, the general concept of cell fusion, and embryo transfer.

Biotechnology in diary industry- 12 hrs

Milk and milk products: cheese, yogurt, ice-cream production, sour milk, skimmed milk, dry powder milk, pasteurization process of milk.

Methods in genetic engineering- 12 hrs

Introduction, the outline of gene cloning, gene cloning procedure, vectors used in recombinant DNA technology, applications, and possible hazards of genetic engineering.

Enzyme technology- 16 hrs

Introduction, source of enzymes, selection of the source of enzymes, the advantage of microbial enzymes, production and purification of protease, amylase, chitinase, and pectinase.


1. Nelson DL and Cox MM (2004). Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, 5th Edition. Freeman Publication.
2. Stryer L (1995). Biochemistry, 4th Edition. W.H. Freeman Company, New York.
3. Creuger W and Creuger A (2000). Biotechnology. A textbook of Industrial Microbiology. Sinaeur Associates.
4. Smith JE (1996). Biotechnology, 3rd Edition. Cambridge University Press.
5. Cassida LE Jr (1996). Industrial Microbiology, New Age Int. Publishers.

Reference books

1. Rao KR (1986). Textbook of Biochemistry, 3rd Edition. Prentice-Hall of India.
2. Rao RAVSS (1993). A Textbook of Biochemistry, UBSPD Co.
3. Jain JL (2004). Fundamentals of Biochemistry. S Chand and Company Ltd.
4. Dubey RC (2001). Textbook of Biotechnology. S Chand and Company Ltd.

Description of the Course (Practical)

Course Title: Biochemistry and Microbial Biotechnology

Practical Full Marks: 50

Course No: MB 202 (Major)

Pass Marks: 20

Nature of the Course: Practical

Year: II

Total Lecture Hours: 180

Course Objectives

After completion of the course, the students will be able to:

a) develop practical skills in preparing solutions, buffers, and qualitative and quantitative estimates of biomolecules and basic biotechnological laboratory skills.

Course Contents

To prepare solutions of different concentrations

Molar solutions, normal solutions, ppm (part per million) solutions.

To prepare buffer solutions

Measurement of pH using pH meter and indicators, preparation of acetate, phosphate, and citrate buffers of different pH.

To perform a qualitative and quantitative estimate of various types of carbohydrates

Benedict test (for reducing sugars), Molish’s test, Barfoed’s test, Seliwanoff’s test, hydrolysis test (for di and polysaccharides), iodine test for starch, quantitative estimation of reducing sugars by DNS (3,5 dinitrosalicylic acid method), extraction of glycogen from the liver.

To estimate lipids

Determination of the value of fat, saponification value of fat, iodine number of fat, estimation of blood cholesterol level.

To estimate amino acids and protein

Ninhydrin reaction, biuret reaction, xanthoproteic reaction, casein test in milk, test for tyrosine, tryptophan, and arginine, test for sulfur-containing amino acids, Heat coagulation test for egg albumin.

To analyze different enzymes activities

Amylase, sucrase, carboxylase, protease, lipase, phosphatase, lactase.

To use different instruments and techniques for biochemical analysis

Separation and identification of amino acids by paper electrophoresis, separation and identification of sugars and lipids by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), separation and identification of amino acids by paper chromatography, separation of amino acids by single and double ascending paper chromatography, chicken liver fractionation by differential centrifugation, analysis of protein by SDS-PAGE.

To detect microorganisms from various plants and their products

Rhizobium inoculation in different leguminous plants, isolation, and characterization of Rhizobium, Azotobacter, and Mycorrhiza.

Screening of microorganisms and production of fermented products

Screening of wine yeasts, production of alcohol, kinema, estimation of fermentation yield by substrate variation method.

Extraction, purification, and estimation of enzymes

Amylase and protease enzymes of bacteria.

Isolation of bacteria

Methanogenic bacteria from rumen and compost; actinomycetes from compost and soil.


Tribhuvan University. Institute of Science and Technology. 4 year’s Bachelors of Science Revised Course of Study. Dean’s Office, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal.

About Author

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Sagar Aryal

Sagar Aryal is a microbiologist and a scientific blogger. He is doing his Ph.D. at the Central Department of Microbiology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal. He was awarded the DAAD Research Grant to conduct part of his Ph.D. research work for two years (2019-2021) at Helmholtz-Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland (HIPS), Saarbrucken, Germany. Sagar is interested in research on actinobacteria, myxobacteria, and natural products. He is the Research Head of the Department of Natural Products, Kathmandu Research Institute for Biological Sciences (KRIBS), Lalitpur, Nepal. Sagar has more than ten years of experience in blogging, content writing, and SEO. Sagar was awarded the SfAM Communications Award 2015: Professional Communicator Category from the Society for Applied Microbiology (Now: Applied Microbiology International), Cambridge, United Kingdom (UK). Sagar is also the ASM Young Ambassador to Nepal for the American Society for Microbiology since 2023 onwards.

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