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Bio. 301 (Class 11 Biology Syllabus with practical and sample project works)
Grade 11 – Botany (Theory) (64 teaching hours)
Unit 1 – Biomolecules & Cell Biology (15 teaching hours)
1.1 Biomolecules: Introduction and functions of: carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, minerals, enzymes and water. (4 teaching hours)
1.2 Cell: Introduction of cell, concepts of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, detail structure of eukaryotic cells (composition, structure and functions of cell wall, cell membrane, mitochondria, plastids, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, ribosomes, nucleus, chromosomes, cilia, flagella and cell inclusions. (8 teaching hours)
1.3 Cell division: Concept of cell cycle, types of cell division (amitosis, mitosis and meiosis) and significances. (3 teaching hours)
Unit 2 – Floral Diversity (30 teaching hours)
2.1 Introduction: Three domains of life, binomial nomenclature, five kingdom classification system (Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia); status of flora in Nepal and world representation. (1 teaching hours)
2.2 Fungi: General introduction and characteristic features of phycomycetes, ascomycetes, basidiomycetes and deuteromycetes; structure and Reproduction of Mucor and Yeast, introduction of Mushrooms, poisonous and non-poisonous mushrooms, economic importance of fungi. (3 teaching hours)
2.3 Lichen: General introduction, characteristic features and economic importance of lichen. (1 teaching hour)
2.4 Algae: General introduction and characteristic feature of green, brown and red algae; structure and reproduction of Spirogyra. Economic importance of algae. (2 teaching hours)
2.5 Bryophyta: General introduction and characteristic features of liverworts, hornworts and moss; morphological structure and reproduction of Marchantia. Economic importance of bryophytes. (2 teaching hours)
2.6 Pteridophyta: General introduction and characteristic features of pteridophytes; morphological structure and reproduction of Dryopteris. Economic importance of pteridophytes. (2 teaching hours)
2.7 Gymnosperm: General introduction and characteristic features of Gymnosperms; morphology and reproduction of Pinus. Economic importance of gymnosperm. (3 teaching hours)
2.8 Angiosperm: Morphology (root, stem, leaves, inflorescences, flowers and fruit); Taxonomic study: Definition, taxonomic hierarchy, classification systems (artificial, natural and phylogenetic) of angiosperms, taxonomic description of the families – Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, and Liliaceae with economic importance. (16 teaching hours)
Unit 3 – Introductory Microbiology (5 teaching hours)
3.1 Monera: General introduction, structure of bacterial cell, mode of nutrition, bacterial growth; cyanobacteria (blue green algae). (3 teaching hours)
3.2 Virus: General introduction, structure and importance of virus, bacteriophage. (1 teaching hour)
3.3 Impacts of biotechnology in the field of microbiology. (1 teaching hour)
Unit 4 – Ecology (11 teaching hours)
4.1 Ecosystem ecology: Concept of ecology, biotic and abiotic factors, species interactions; concept of ecosystem, structural and functional aspects of pond and forest ecosystem, food chain, food web, trophic level, ecological pyramids, productivity, biogeochemical cycle-carbon and nitrogen cycles, concept of succession. (7 teaching hours)
4.2 Ecological Adaptation: Concept of adaptation, hydrophytes and xerophytes. (2 teaching hours)
4.3 Ecological Imbalances: Greenhouse effects and climate change, depletion of ozone layer, acid rain and biological invasion. (2 teaching hours)
Unit 5 – Vegetation (3 teaching hours)
5.1 Vegetation: Introduction, types of vegetation in Nepal, concept of In-situ (protected areas) and Ex-situ (botanical garden, seed bank) conservation. (2 teaching hours)
5.2 Natural environment-vegetation and human activities. (1 teaching hour)
Grade 11 – Zoology (Theory) (64 teaching hours)
Unit 6 – Introduction to Biology (1 teaching hour)
6.1 Introduction to Biology: Scope and fields of biology. Relation with other science. (1 teaching hour)
Unit 7 – Evolutionary Biology (15 teaching hours)
7.1 Life and its Origin: Oparin-Haldane theory, Miller and Urey’s experiment. (2 teaching hours)
7.2 Evidences of evolution: Morphological, Anatomical, Paleontological, Embryological and Biochemical. (5 teaching hours)
7.3 Theories of evolution: Lamarckism, Darwinism & concept of Neo Darwinism. (3 teaching hours)
7.4 Human evolution: Position of man in animal kingdom. Differences between new world monkeys & old world monkeys, apes & man. Evolution of modern man starting from anthropoid ancestor. (5 teaching hours)
Unit 8 – Faunal Diversity (34 teaching hours)
8.1 Protista: Outline classification. Protozoa: diagnostic features and classification up to class with examples; Paramecium caudatum, Plasmodium vivax – habits and habitat, structure, reproduction, life-cycle and economic importance of P. falciparum. (4 teaching hours)
8.2 Animalia: Level of organization, body plan, body symmetry, body cavity and segmentation in animals. Diagnostic features and classification of the following phyla (up to class) with examples: Porifera, Coelenterata (Cnidaria), Platyhelminthes, Aschelminthes (Nemathelminthes), Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Chordata. (10 teaching hours)
8.3 Earthworm (Pheretima posthuma): Habit and habitat, External features; Digestive system (alimentary canal & physiology of digestion), Excretory system (types of nephridia, structure and arrangement of septal nephridia), Nervous system (central & peripheral nervous system, working mechanism) & Reproductive systems (male & female reproductive organs), Copulation, Cocoon formation and Economic importance. (10 teaching hours)
8.4 Frog (Rana tigrina): Habit and habitat, External features, Digestive system (alimentary canal, digestive glands & physiology of digestion), Blood vascular system (structure & working mechanism of heart), Respiratory system (respiratory organs & physiology of respiration) and Reproductive system (male & female reproductive organs). (10 teaching hours)
Unit 9 – Biota and Environment (10 teaching hours)
9.1 Animal adaptation: Aquatic (Primary & Secondary), Terrestrial (Cursorial, Fossorial & Arboreal) and Volant adaptation. (3 teaching hours)
9.2 Animal behavior: Reflex action, taxes, dominance and leadership. Fish and bird Migration. (4 teaching hours)
9.3 Environmental Pollution: Sources, effects and control measures of air, water and soil pollution. Pesticides & their effects. (3 teaching hours)
Unit 10 – Conservation Biology (4 teaching hours)
10.1 Conservation Biology: Concept of biodiversity, biodiversity conservation, national parks, wildlife reserves, conservation areas, biodiversity hotspots, wetland & Ramsar sites. (2 teaching hours)
10.2 Wildlife: Importance, causes of extinction and conservation strategies. IUCN categories of threatened species- meaning of extinct, endangered, vulnerable, rare, and threatened species. Endangered species in Nepal. (2 teaching hours)
Class 11 Botany Practical
Unit 1: Biomolecules and Cell Biology
1. Study of tissues and diversity in shapes and sizes of plant cells (e.g. palisade cells, guard cells, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, xylem, phloem,) through temporary/permanent slides.
2. Study of mitosis in onion root tips cells by preparing temporary slides and permanent slides.
Unit 2: Floral Diversity
3. Collect, identify different types of plants from your nearby locality and preserve them with appropriate method.
4. Collect, preserve and identify some available mushrooms. Distinguish poisonous and edible mushrooms.
5. Study and describe three locally available common flowering plants from each of the following families (Solanaceae, Fabaceae and Liliaceae) including dissection and display of floral whorls and anther and ovary to show number of chambers. Types of root (Tap and Adventitious); Stem (Herbaceous and woody); Leaf (arrangement, shape, venation, simple and compound).
6. Study and identification of different types of inflorescence.
Unit 3: Introductory Microbiology
7. Culture the given sample of soil and study the microorganisms present in it.
Unit 4: Ecology
8. Study the biotic and abiotic factors of a pond as an ecosystem.
9. Determine the population density of plants of given area by quadrate method.
10. Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study them for texture, moisture content, pH and water holding capacity of soil. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them.
11. Study of plant population density by quadrate method.
Unit 5: Vegetation
12. Study of the specimens and identification with reasons- Bacteria, Oscillatoria, Spirogyra, Rhizopus, mushroom, yeast, liverwort, moss, fern, pine, one monocotyledonous plant and one dicotyledonous plant and one lichen.
Class 11 Zoology Practical
Unit 6: Introduction to Biology
13. Study parts of a compound microscope.
Unit 7: Evolutionary Biology
14. Study of the evidences of evolution through fossils (for example saligram).
Unit 8: Faunal Diversity
15. Study of specimens and identification with reasons- Amoeba, Hydra, Liverfluke, Ascaris, leech, earthworm, prawn, silkworm, honeybee, snail, starfish, shark, rohu, frog, lizard, pigeon and rabbit.
16. Dissect and study the alimentary canal of the earthworm, frog and rabbit.
Unit 9: Biota and Environment
17. To study the biotic and abiotic components of pond or any other ecosystems nearby you
Unit 10: Conservation Biology
18. Find out the new strategies for conserving biodiversity in the context of Nepalese development.
Sample project work for grade 11 in Biology
1. Collect the sample of cryptogams (Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes) and study their characteristics.
2. Observe and compare the morphological adaptation of hydrophytes, xerophytes and xerophytes.
3. Prepare a report on local varieties and improved varieties of crops and vegetables in your area.
4. Visit the forest or vegetation types in your nearby area and prepare a report on it.
5. Prepare a report on the role of botanical garden in conservation of plants in Nepal
6. Survey any locality regarding any topics related to theory course of Biology (visit to zoological museum/zoo/protected areas/natural habits- forest/lake or river) and writing a report of it.
7. Prepare a report on causes and consequences of environmental pollution in your locality.
8. Observe different cultivation methods of Mushroom and prepare a report on it.
9. Look for resources like library, journals, web surfing, field observations etc and study present status and scope of Biotechnology in Nepal.
Reference and Source
Secondary Education Curriculum, Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Government of Nepal.