DNA Polymerase- definition, structure, types (vs RNA polymerase)

DNA polymerase

DNA polymerase definition DNA polymerases are a group of enzymes that are used to make copies of DNA templates, essentially used in DNA replication mechanisms. These enzymes make new copies of DNA from existing templates and also function by repairing the synthesized DNA to prevent mutations. DNA polymerase catalyzes the formation of the phosphodiester bond which makes up the backbone …

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DNA Replication- definition, enzymes, steps, mechanism, diagram

DNA Replication

What is DNA? Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that is made up of three components: a deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base. Deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA is the genetic material via which a cell is defined. It is a long molecule containing unique codes that give instructions for the synthesis of all body proteins. DNA structure The …

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Endonuclease vs Exonuclease- Definition, 11 Major Differences, Examples

Differences between Endonuclease and Exonuclease

Image Source: Helixitta and Christopherrussell. Endonuclease Definition An endonuclease is a group of enzymes that cleave the phosphodiester bond present within a polynucleotide chain. Endonucleases are capable of breaking the bond from the middle of a chain. These enzymes are either specific or non-specific to the sequences being cleaved. The endonucleases that are specific to a particular sequence are termed …

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Transposable elements- definition, types, examples, applications

transposable elements

Transposable elements definition Transposable elements (TE) or transposons can be defined as small, mobile DNA sequences that move around chromosomes with no regard for homology, and insertion of these elements may produce deletions, inversions, chromosomal fusions, and even more complicated rearrangements. Transposons are mobile genetic elements that often carry an antimicrobial resistance gene. These elements can insert randomly, move from …

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Bacterial Transformation- definition, principle, steps, examples

Bacterial Transformation

Bacterial Transformation Definition Bacterial transformation is the transfer of free DNA released from a donor bacterium into the extracellular environment that results in assimilation and usually an expression of the newly acquired trait in a recipient bacterium. This process doesn’t require a living donor cell and only requires free DNA in the environment. The recipient that successfully propagates the new …

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Bacterial Transduction- Definition, Principle, Steps, Examples

Bacterial Transduction- Definition, Principle, Steps, Examples

Transduction Definition Transduction is the transfer of bacterial DNA from a donor to a recipient bacterium via a virus particle. The virus particle that infects bacteria is called a bacteriophage or phage, and the phages used for the transfer of DNA are called transfusing phages. Not all phages are transducing phages. The process of transduction can transfer DNA regions of …

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Flow Cytometry-Definition, Principle, Parts, Steps, Types, Uses

Flow Cytometry-Definition, Principle, Parts, Steps, Types, Uses

Flow Cytometry Definition Flow cytometry is a standard laser-based technology that is used in the detection and measurement of physical and chemical characteristics of cells or particles in a heterogeneous fluid mixture. The use of flow cytometry has increased over the years as it provides a rapid analysis of multiple characteristics (both qualitative and quantitative) of the cells. The properties …

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Bacterial Conjugation- Definition, Principle, Process, Examples

Steps or Process of Bacterial Conjugation

Bacterial Conjugation Definition Conjugation is the transfer of a plasmid or other self-transmissible DNA element and sometimes chromosomal DNA from a donor cell to a recipient cell via direct contact usually mediated by a conjugation pilus or sex pilus. Recipients of the DNA transferred by conjugation are called transconjugants. The process of conjugation can transfer DNA regions of hundreds to …

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Types of PCR (Polymerase chain reaction) – definition and uses

Types of PCR (Polymerase chain reaction)- definition and uses

List of Types of PCR Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) PCR Allele-specific PCR Alu PCR Assembly PCR Asymmetric PCR COLD PCR Colony PCR Conventional PCR Digital PCR (dPCR) Fast-cycling PCR High-fidelity PCR High-Resolution Melt (HRM) PCR Hot-start PCR In situ PCR Intersequence-specific (ISSR) PCR Inverse PCR LATE (linear after the exponential) PCR Ligation-mediated PCR Long-range PCR Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) Miniprimer …

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What is Sensitivity, Specificity, False positive, False negative?

What is Sensitivity, Specificity, False positive, False negative

These are terms that are fundamental to understanding the utility of clinical tests. They are the most essential variables when designing diagnostic tests, in determining how reliable the tests are and also how reliable the results obtained from the results are. When using known samples of a disease, sensitivity and specificity variables can be calculated for evaluation of the test …

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