Gene Expression

Gene Expression

Gene expression is the process by which the genetic code – the nucleotide sequence – of a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product. It refers to a complex series of processes in which the information encoded in … Read more

Agarose Gel Electrophoresis

Agarose Gel Electrophoresis

Agarose gel electrophoresis is a method of gel electrophoresis used in biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics, and clinical chemistry to separate a mixed population of macromolecules such as DNA , RNA or proteins in a matrix of agarose. Agarose is a natural linear polymer extracted from seaweed that forms a … Read more

The Wobble Hypothesis

The Wobble Hypothesis

There are more than one codon for one amino acid. This is called degeneracy of genetic code. To explain the possible cause of degeneracy of codons, in 1966, Francis Crick proposed “the Wobble hypothesis”. According to this hypothesis, only the … Read more

Cloning Vectors

Cloning Vectors

Genetic vectors are vehicles for delivering foreign DNA into recipient cells. In molecular cloning, a vector is a DNA molecule used as a vehicle to artificially carry foreign genetic material into another cell, where it can be replicated and/or expressed. Vectors can replicate autonomously and typically … Read more

Restriction Enzyme (Restriction Endonuclease)

Restriction Enzyme (Restriction Endonuclease)

Restriction Enzyme (Restriction Endonuclease) Definition Restriction enzyme, also called restriction endonuclease, is a protein produced by bacteria that cleaves DNA at specific sites along the molecule. Restriction endonucleases cut the DNA double helix in very precise ways. It cleaves DNA into fragments at or near … Read more

DNA Microarray

Steps Involved in cDNA based Microarray

DNA microarrays are solid supports, usually of glass or silicon, upon which DNA is attached in an organized pre-determined grid fashion. Each spot of DNA, called a probe, represents a single gene. DNA microarrays can analyze the expression of tens … Read more

Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)

Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)

Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is a powerful platform that has enabled the sequencing of thousands to millions of DNA molecules simultaneously. Next-generation sequencing (NGS), also known as high-throughput sequencing, is the catch-all term used to describe a number of different … Read more

Tryptophan (Trp) Operon

Trp Operon Structure

Many protein-coding genes in bacteria are clustered together in operons which serve as transcriptional units that are coordinately regulated. It was Jacob and Monod in 1961 who proposed the operon model for the regulation of transcription. The operon model proposes … Read more

Post Translational Modification

Post Translational Modification

Post translational modifications refer to any alteration in the amino acid sequence of the protein after its synthesis. It may involve the modification of the amino acid side chain, terminal amino or carboxyl group by means of covalent or enzymatic means … Read more

Prokaryotic Translation (Protein Synthesis)

Prokaryotic Translation (Protein Synthesis)

Translation involves translating the sequence of a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule to a sequence of amino acids during protein synthesis. It is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA. The Ribosomes Ribosomes exist normally as separate subunits that are … Read more

RNA- Properties, Structure, Types and Functions

RNA- Properties, Structure, Types and Functions

RNA or ribonucleic acid is a polymer of nucleotides which is made up of a ribose sugar, a phosphate, and bases such as adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil. It is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes. Figure: (a) Ribonucleotides … Read more