Types of Agglutination Reactions

Antiglobulin (Coombs) test

Agglutination reactions can be broadly divided into three groups: Active/Direct agglutination Passive agglutination Hemagglutination 1. Active agglutination Agglutination reactions where the antigens are found naturally on a particle are known as direct agglutination. In active agglutination, direct agglutination of particulate … Read more

Autoimmune Disease

Autoimmune Disease

Autoimmune disease They occur when a specific adaptive immune response is mounted against self antigens. The normal consequence of an adaptive immune response against a foreign antigen is the clearance of the antigen from the body. Virus-infected cells, for example, … Read more

Biology of the B Lymphocyte

Biology of the B Lymphocyte

B lymphocytes They acquired their name from early experiments in chickens. The synthesis of antibody was shown to require the presence of an organ called the bursa of Fabricius (an outpouching of the cloacal epithelium). Surgical removal of the bursa … Read more

Innate Immune System- An Introduction

Innate Immune System- An Introduction

Introduction The innate immune system provides the first line of host defense against microbes, before adaptive immune responses have had sufficient time to develop. The mechanisms of innate immunity exist before exposure to microbes. The cellular components of the innate … Read more