Endocytosis- Definition, Process and Types with Examples

Endocytosis- Definition, Process, Types. Examples

Endocytosis Definition Endocytosis is a cellular mechanism by which, a cell internalizes substances including proteins, fluids, electrolytes, microorganisms, and some macromolecules, from its external environment. These substances undergo certain processes of breaking down to smaller elements either for use by the cell or for elimination purposes. White blood cells, of the immune system, are the most common cells that use …

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MHC Class I vs MHC Class II- Definition, 15 Major Differences, Examples

Differences between MHC Class I and Class II

MHC Class I and Class II differences (mhc i vs mhc ii) The major differences are: S.N. Characteristics MHC-I molecule MHC -II molecule 1. Distribution Present on almost all nucleated cells including platelets. Have a restricted tissue distribution and are chiefly found on macrophages, dendritic cells, B cells, and other antigen-presenting cells only. 2. Encoding genes MHC class I proteins …

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Immune Booster Foods

Immune Booster Foods

Amidst the COVID-19 outbreak, the pandemic has stirred questions about how effective is the body in fighting infections. Naturally, the body fights infections by activating its immune responses which activate cascades of mechanisms in the body to eliminate the pathogen from the system. Immunity definition Immunity is the main process that defends the body from infections and sometimes, the body …

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Counter Current Immunoelectrophoresis

Counter Current Immunoelectrophoresis

Immunoelectrophoresis refers to the process in which an antigen mixture is first separated into its component parts by electrophoresis and then tested by immunodiffusion. The electrophoresed antigen mixture in agarose gel allows the separation of different antigens along the gel slide, and then the lateral diffusion of an antibody in the gel occurs resulting in precipitate formation. Counter Current Immunoelectrophoresis …

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Ouchterlony Double Immunodiffusion technique

Ouchterlony Double Immunodiffusion technique

Immuno-diffusion is a technique for the detection or measurement of antibodies and antigens by their precipitation which involves diffusion through a substance such as agar or gel agarose. Simply, it denotes precipitation in gel. It refers to one of the several techniques for obtaining a precipitate between an antibody and its specific antigen. Immunodiffusion reactions are classified based on the: …

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Physiological barriers of immune system

Physiological barriers of immune system

The simplest way to avoid infection is to prevent the microorganisms from gaining access to the body. Anatomical and physiological barriers together provide this crucial first line of defense against pathogens. Physiological barriers that contribute to the innate immunity are the body temperature, pH and various soluble secretory products of the mucosa. A. Body temperature While normal body temperature of …

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Complement Components

Complement Components

Complement refers to a set of serum proteins that cooperates with both the innate and the adaptive immune systems to eliminate blood and tissue pathogens. Complement components can be classified into seven functional categories: Initiator complement components: These proteins initiate their respective complement cascades by binding to particular soluble or membrane-bound molecules. Once bound to their activating ligand, they undergo …

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Complement- Properties and Nomenclature

Complement- Properties and Nomenclature

Complement refers to a set of serum proteins that cooperates with both the innate and the adaptive immune systems to eliminate blood and tissue pathogens. Various complement components bind and opsonize bacteria, rendering them susceptible to receptor-mediated phagocytosis by macrophages, which express membrane receptors for complement proteins. Other complement proteins elicit inflammatory responses, interface with components of the adaptive immune …

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Latex Agglutination Test

Results and Interpretation of Latex Agglutination Test

When a particulate or insoluble antigen is mixed with its antibody in the presence of electrolytes at a suitable temperature and pH, the particles are clumped or agglutinated. Agglutination reactions are classified as direct, indirect (passive) and reverse passive agglutination reactions. Direct Agglutination Test refers to the assays in which the antigen directly agglutinates with the antibody. Indirect or passive agglutination …

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Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) Test

Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) Test

Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) like the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test is a screening test for syphilis which is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum. It is a rapid non-treponemal test that looks for non-specific antibodies in the blood of the patient that may indicate a syphilis infection. The test does not look for antibodies against the causative bacterium itself but …

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