Immunoelectrophoresis- Principle, Procedure, Results and Applications, Advantages and Limitations

Immunoelectrophoresis- Principle, Procedure, Results and Applications

Immunoelectrophoresis refers to precipitation in agar under an electric field. It is a process of combination of immuno-diffusion and electrophoresis. An antigen mixture is first separated into its component parts by electrophoresis and then tested by double immuno-diffusion. Antigens are placed into wells cut in a gel (without antibody) and electrophoresed. A trough is then … Read moreImmunoelectrophoresis- Principle, Procedure, Results and Applications, Advantages and Limitations

Radial Immunodiffusion- Objectives, Principle, Procedure, Results, Applications, Advantages and Limitations

Result Interpretation of Radial Immunodiffusion

Immuno-diffusion is a technique for the detection or measurement of antibodies and antigens by their precipitation which involves diffusion through a substance such as agar or gel agarose. Simply, it denotes precipitation in gel. It refers to any of the several techniques for obtaining a precipitate between an antibody and its specific antigen. This can … Read moreRadial Immunodiffusion- Objectives, Principle, Procedure, Results, Applications, Advantages and Limitations

Ring Precipitation Test- Objectives, Principle, Procedure, Results and Examples

Results Interpretation of Ring Precipitation Test

Interactions of antibodies and antigens, in the form of various tests, have been developed to determine the presence or absence of antibodies or antigens in a sample.  A type of interaction between soluble antigens with its specific antibody in a suitable medium that results into the formation of an insoluble complex that precipitates is termed … Read moreRing Precipitation Test- Objectives, Principle, Procedure, Results and Examples

Widal Test- Objective, Principle, Procedure, Types, Results, Advantages and Limitations

Result Interpretation of Widal Test

Widal Test- Objective, Principle, Procedure, Types, Results, Advantages and Limitations Widal test is an agglutination test which detects the presence of antibodies in patient’s serum produced against the causative agents of enteric fever (Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, B and C). It is one of the common methods employed for serological diagnosis of typhoid and … Read moreWidal Test- Objective, Principle, Procedure, Types, Results, Advantages and Limitations

Immunoglobulin E (IgE)- Structure and Functions

Immunoglobulin E (IgE)- Structure and Functions

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is one of the 5 classes of immunoglobulins, which is defined by the presence of epsilon (ε) heavy chain. It is present in circulation at very low concentrations of less than 1 µg/mL which is approximately 300-fold lower than that of IgG. Although least abundant, it is in many respects the most … Read moreImmunoglobulin E (IgE)- Structure and Functions

Anatomical Barriers of Immune System- Skin and Mucus

Anatomical Barriers of Immune System- Skin and Mucus

Anatomical Barriers of Immune System- Skin and Mucus Before a microbe or parasite can invade the host and cause infection, it must first attach to and penetrate the surface epithelial layers of the body. Organisms gain entrance into the body by active or passive means. For example, actively, they might burrow through the skin, while … Read moreAnatomical Barriers of Immune System- Skin and Mucus

Immunoglobulin D (IgD)- Structure and Functions

Immunoglobulin D (IgD)- Structure and Functions

Immunoglobulin D (IgD) is a unique immunoglobulin with a low concentration in serum and the exact function of which is not known. IgD represents about 0.25% of the total serum immunoglobulins and has a relative molecular mass of 185 kDa while a half-life of 2.8 days, similar to that of IgE. However, it makes up about 1% … Read moreImmunoglobulin D (IgD)- Structure and Functions

Inflammation

Inflammation

lnflammation or inflammatory response is defined as the biological response of the immune system especially vascular tissues to harmful stimuli, such as microorganisms or other foreign substances. It occurs when tissues are injured by microbes, trauma, toxins, heat, or any other cause and hence is the body’s normal protective response against infection or injury. It … Read moreInflammation

Non-Specific Immune Response

Non-Specific Immune Response

Defence mechanism refers to the ways in which the body protects itself from invasion of pathogenic organisms or other foreign materials such that it provides defence against their harmful effects. The defence mechanism employed may be achieved through either specific or non-specific mechanisms. Non-specific defence mechanisms are termed so as it offers resistance or protection … Read moreNon-Specific Immune Response

Differences Between Antigenic Shift and Antigenic Drift

Differences Between Antigenic Shift and Antigenic Drift

Differences Between Antigenic Shift and Antigenic Drift Here are some differences: S.N. Characteristics Antigenic Shift Antigenic Drift 1. Definition Antigenic shift refers to the gene recombination occurring when influenza viruses re-assort. Mutations causing minute changes in the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase antigens on the surface of the Influenza virus is termed as antigenic drift. 2. Result in … Read moreDifferences Between Antigenic Shift and Antigenic Drift