Immunoglobulin M (IgM)- Structure and Functions

Immunoglobulin M (IgM)- Structure and Functions

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is an antigen receptor on B cells and the first antibody produced in an immune response. It is present both on B cells, and as a soluble molecule in the blood. Because of its large size (900 kDa), IgM is found primarily in the intravascular space i.e. in the bloodstream and also … Read moreImmunoglobulin M (IgM)- Structure and Functions

Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissues (MALT)

Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissues (MALT)

The main sites of entry for microbes into the body are through mucosal surfaces. Hence, the majority (>50%) of lymphoid tissue in the human body is located within the lining of the respiratory, digestive and genitourinary tracts. Small concentrations of lymphoid tissue are also found in thyroid, breast, lung, salivary glands, eye, and skin. Image Source: DOI: 10.1183/13993003.01701-2015 These lymphoid tissues collectively are thus … Read moreMucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissues (MALT)

Immunoglobulin A (IgA)- Structure, Subclasses and Functions

Immunoglobulin A (IgA)- Structure, Subclasses and Functions

Antibodies, or ‘immunoglobulins’, are glycoproteins that bind antigens with high specificity and affinity. In humans there are five chemically and physically distinct classes of antibodies (IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, IgE). Immunoglobulin A (IgA), is the major class of antibody present in the mucosal secretions of most mammals. It is the key first line of defence … Read moreImmunoglobulin A (IgA)- Structure, Subclasses and Functions

Active Immunization- Advantages and Drawbacks

Active Immunization- Advantages and Drawbacks

Immunization is the process whereby a person naturally acquires or is induced to acquire immunity or resistance to an infectious disease. An individual can acquire such immunity either passively or actively and thus immunization may be active or passive immunization. In active immunization, the immune system is stimulated to produce antibodies against a particular infectious agent and … Read moreActive Immunization- Advantages and Drawbacks

Immunoglobulin G (IgG)- Structure, Subclasses and Functions

Immunoglobulin G (IgG)- Structure, Subclasses and Functions

Antibodies, or ‘immunoglobulins’, are glycoproteins that bind antigens with high specificity and affinity. In humans there are five chemically and physically distinct classes of antibodies (IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, IgE). Immunoglobulin G (IgG), the most abundant type of antibody, is found in all body fluids and protects against bacterial and viral infections. It represents approximately … Read moreImmunoglobulin G (IgG)- Structure, Subclasses and Functions

Spleen- Structure and Functions

Spleen- Structure and Functions

The spleen is a large, encapsulated, bean-shaped organ that is situated on the left side of the body below the diaphragm. The spleen contains T and B lymphocytes as well as many phagocytes and is a major component of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Although the structure resembles that of the large lymph nodes, the spleen … Read moreSpleen- Structure and Functions

Hypersensitivity Type I, II, III and IV in one table

Hypersensitivity Type I, II, III and IV in one table

Hypersensitivity Type I, II, III and IV in one table Here is the comparison table: S.N. Character Type I Type II Type III Type IV 1. Alternative Name Allergic hypersensitivity Cytotoxic hypersensitivity Immune complex hypersensitivity Cell mediated hypersensitivity/ Delayed type of hypersensitivity 2. Principle Antibody mediated degranulation of granulocytes leading to destruction of cells. Antibody … Read moreHypersensitivity Type I, II, III and IV in one table

Differences between Serum and Plasma

Differences between Serum and Plasma

Differences between Serum and Plasma Here are the major differences: S.N. Characteristics Serum Plasma 1. Definition The clear yellow fluid separated when blood is allowed to clot freely. Yellowish and slight alkaline fluid, in which blood cells float. 2. Clotting factors It is the watery fluid from blood without the clotting factors. It is the … Read moreDifferences between Serum and Plasma

Differences between Innate Immunity and Adaptive Immunity

Differences between Innate Immunity and Adaptive Immunity

Differences between Innate Immunity and Adaptive Immunity Some of the differences are: S.N. Characteristics Innate Immunity Adaptive Immunity 1. Synonyms Nonspecific, natural immunity Specific, acquired immunity 2. Definition The defense mechanisms that are non-antigen specific and immediately come into play on the antigen’s appearance in the body.  The defense mechanism that is not always present … Read moreDifferences between Innate Immunity and Adaptive Immunity

Differences between Cytokines and Chemokines

Differences between Cytokines and Chemokines

Differences between Cytokines and Chemokines Here are some differences: S.N. Characteristics Cytokines Chemokines 1. Definition Small proteins produced dominantly by immune cells which are important in cell signaling. Specific cytokines that are specially adapted for chemotaxis of cells. 2. Description A broad family of chemical messengers serving to bring about immune response. They are chemotactic … Read moreDifferences between Cytokines and Chemokines