Neutralization Test- Introduction and Types

Neutralization Test- Introduction and Types

A neutralizing antibody defends a cell from an antigen or infectious body by inhibiting or neutralizing any biological effect. The antibody response is crucial for preventing many viral infections and may also contribute to the resolution of an infection. When a vertebrate is infected with a virus, antibodies are produced against many epitopes of multiple virus proteins. A subset of …

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Types of Agglutination Reactions

Antiglobulin (Coombs) test

Agglutination reactions can be broadly divided into three groups: Active/Direct agglutination Passive agglutination Hemagglutination 1. Active agglutination Agglutination reactions where the antigens are found naturally on a particle are known as direct agglutination. In active agglutination, direct agglutination of particulate antigen with specific antibody occurs. Direct bacterial agglutination uses whole pathogens as a source of antigen. It measures the antibody …

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Agglutination – definition, reactions and applications

Agglutination- Introduction and Applications

Agglutination definition Agglutination is an antigen-antibody reaction in which a particulate antigen combines with its antibody in the presence of electrolytes at a specified temperature and pH resulting in the formation of visible clumping of particles. It occurs optimally when antigens and antibodies react in equivalent proportions. This reaction is analogous to the precipitation reaction in that antibodies act as …

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Types of Precipitation Reactions

Types of Precipitation Reactions

Precipitation reactions can be broad of three types: Precipitation in solution. Precipitation in agar. Precipitation in agar with an electric field. Precipitation in solution Ring test and flocculation test are examples of precipitation in solution. It is also called simple precipitation. Ring test: In this test, a clear solution of the test antigen is layered slowly over the clear solution …

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Precipitation Reaction – definition and applications

Introduction to Precipitation Reaction

Precipitation definition It is a type of antigen-antibody reaction, in which the antigen occurs in a soluble form. When a soluble antigen reacts with its specific antibody, at an optimum temperature and PH in the presence of electrolyte antigen-antibody complex forms insoluble precipitate. This reaction is called a precipitation reaction. A lattice is formed between the antigens and antibodies; in …

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Introduction to Antigen-Antibody Reactions

Introduction to Antigen-Antibody Reactions

The interactions between antigens and antibodies are known as antigen–antibody reactions. The reactions are highly specific, and an antigen reacts only with antibodies produced by itself or with closely related antigens. Antibodies recognize molecular shapes (epitopes) on antigens. Generally, the better the fit of the epitope (in terms of geometry and chemical character) to the antibody combining site, the more …

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Properties and Function of different classes of Antibodies

Properties and Function of different classes of Antibodies

Antibodies are glycoproteins produced in membrane-bound or secreted form by B lymphocytes in response to exposure to foreign structures known as antigens. The human immunoglobulins are a family of proteins that confer humoral immunity and perform vital roles in promoting cellular immunity. There are five classes of antibodies or immunoglobulins termed immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, IgA, IgD and IgE. All …

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Antibody- Introduction, Structure and Classes

Antibody- Structure-and-Classes

What are Antibodies? Antibodies are often referred to as immunoglobulins (immune proteins). Antibodies, or Y-shaped immunoglobulins, are proteins found in the blood that help to fight against foreign substances called antigens. Antigens, which are usually proteins or polysaccharides, stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies. The antibodies inactivate the antigen and help to remove it from the body. While antigens can …

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