Bio. 302 (Class 12 Biology Syllabus with practical and sample project works)
Grade 12 – Botany (Theory) (64 teaching hours)
Unit 1 – Plant Anatomy (8 teaching hours)
Unit 2 – Plant Physiology (20 teaching hours)
2.2 Photosynthesis: Introduction and significance of photosynthesis, photosynthetic pigments, mechanism of photosynthesis (photochemical phase and Calvin-Benson cycle), C3 and C4 plants, photorespiration, factors affecting photosynthesis. (5 teaching hours)
2.3 Respiration: Introduction and significance of respiration, types of respiration, mechanism of respiration (glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport system), factors affecting respiration. (5 teaching hour)
2.4 Plant hormones: Introduction, physiological effects of auxins, gibberellins and Cytokinin’s. (3 teaching hours)
2.5 Plant growth and movement: Concept on seed germination, dormancy, photoperiodism, vernalization, senescence; plant movements (tropic and nastic). (3 teaching hours)
Unit 3 – Genetics (21 teaching hours)
3.2 Mendelian genetics: General terminology, Mendel’s experiment and laws of inheritance, gene interactions (incomplete dominance, codominance). (6 teaching hours)
3.3 Linkage and crossing over: Concept and types of linkage (complete and incomplete), sex-linked inheritance (color blindness in man and eye color of Drosophila), concept and significances of crossing over. (5 teaching hours)
3.4 Mutation and polyploidy: Concept, type (gene and chromosomal mutation), importance of mutation (positive and negative), polyploidy (origin and significance). (5 teaching hours)
Unit 4 – Embryology (8 teaching hours)
4.1 Asexual and sexual reproductions in angiosperms, pollination, fertilization, development of male and female gametophytes, development of dicot and monocot embryos, concept of endosperm. (8 teaching hours)
Unit 5 – Biotechnology (7 teaching hours)
7.1 Introduction, tissue culture, plant breeding, disease resistance plants, green manure and biofertilizer, bio-pesticide, genetic engineering and GMOs (genetically modified organisms) and application, bioengineering, food safety and food security. (7 teaching hour)
Grade 12 – Zoology (Theory) (64 teaching hours)
Unit 6 – Animal Tissues (8 teaching hour)
6.1 Animal Tissues: Introduction; Types of animal tissues: epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous (structure, functions & location of different sub-types). (8 teaching hour)
Unit 7 – Developmental Biology (6 teaching hours)
Unit 8 – Human Biology (28 teaching hours)
8.2 Respiratory System: Respiratory organs, respiratory mechanism – exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration. (2 teaching hours)
8.3 Circulatory System: Double circulation (concept), heart (structure and working mechanism), origin and conduction of heartbeat, cardiac cycle, cardiac output, arterial and venous systems (major arteries and veins), blood grouping, blood pressure. (4 teaching hours)
8.4 Excretory System: Concept of modes of excretion (ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism), Excretory organs, mechanism of urine formation. (3 teaching hours)
8.5 Nervous system: Types of nervous system (central, peripheral & autonomous), structure and function of brain, Origin and conduction of nerve impulse. (3 teaching hours)
8.6 Sense organs: Structure and functions of eye and ear. (2 teaching hours)
8.7 Endocrinology: Endocrine glands and hormones – structure & functions of hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads; hypo- and hyper-activity and related disorders. (9 teaching hours)
Unit 9 – Human Population and Health Disorders (6 teaching hours)
9.1 Human Population: Growth problem and control strategies, Concept of demographic cycle. (2 teaching hours)
9.2 Health disorders: Concept of cardiovascular, respiratory & renal disorders; Substance abuse: Drug, alcohol and smoking abuse. (4 teaching hours)
9.2 Animal behavior: Reflex action, taxes, dominance and leadership. Fish and bird Migration. (4 teaching hours)
9.3 Environmental Pollution: Sources, effects and control measures of air, water and soil pollution. Pesticides & their effects. (3 teaching hours)
Unit 10 – Applied Biology (16 teaching hours)
10.1 Application of Zoology: Tissue and organs transplantation, in-vitro fertilization (IVF), amniocentesis, concept of genetically modified organisms (transgenic animals). Poultry farming and fish farming. (6 teaching hours)
10.2 Microbial diseases and application of microbiology: Risk and hazard group of microorganisms. Introduction, causative agents, symptoms, prevention and control measures of selected human diseases: Typhoid, Tuberculosis and HIV infection, cholera, influenza, hepatitis, candidiasis. Basic concepts of immunology–vaccines. Application of microorganisms in dairy and beverage industries, microbial contamination of water, sewage and drinking water treatment, bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers. (10 teaching hours)
Class 12 Botany Practical
Unit 1: Plant Anatomy
1. Preparation and study of T.S. of dicot and monocot roots and stems (primary).
2. Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis.
Unit 2: Plant Physiology
3. Study of osmosis by potato osmometer.
4. Study of plasmolysis in epidermal peels (e.g. Rhoeo leaves)
5. Study of distribution of stomata in the upper and lower surface of leaves.
6. Comparative study of the rates of transpiration in the upper and lower surface of leaves.
7. Study the rate of respiration in flower buds/leaf tissue and germinating seeds.
8. Observation and comments on the experimental set up for showing:
a. Anaerobic respiration
c. Apical bud removal
d. Suction due to transpiration
Unit 3: Genetics
9. Study, Observe and Comments upon the Mendelian Inheritance suing seeds of different colours/sizes of any plants.
Unit 4: Embryology
10. Study of imbibition in seeds/raisins.
Unit 5: Biotechnology
11. Preparation of bio-fertilizer and analyze the significances.
Class 12 Zoology Practical
Unit 6: Animal Tissues
12. Study of tissues and diversity in shapes and sizes of animal cells (e.g. squamous epithelium, muscle fibers and mammalian blood smear) through temporary/permanent slides.
13. Study of mitosis in animal’s cells (grasshopper) from permanent slides.
Unit 7: Developmental Biology
14. Study of permanent slides of different developmental stages (fertilized egg, cleavage, blastula and gastrula) of frog.
Unit 8: Human Biology
15. Detect the presence of starch in the given sample.
16. Detect the presence of protein in the given sample.
17. Study the effect of the different temperatures and pH on the activity of salivary amylase on starch.
18. Detect the presence of urea, sugar, albumin and bile salts in urine
19. Detect the presence of sugar in human blood.
20. Study of Human skeleton and different types of joints.
Unit 9: Human Population and Health Disorders
21. Study of human skeleton and different types of joints.
22. Study of external morphology of cockroach through models.
Sample project works for grade 12 in Biology
1. Prepare a report on the topic “significances of the biology and biology education with different sectors i.e. industrial development, medicine, bio-technology, agriculture etc”.
2. Prepare a report on “recent development of genetic field and their implications in human life”
3. Prepare model of DNA and RNA
4. Visit the human beings and observe the dominant and recessive characteristics of human beings and prepare a report on it.
5. Measure the blood pressure (BP) of human bodies and predict the trends of age wise BP.
6. Visit the poultry farming or fish farming in local area and prepare a report by including the place, farming method, marketing etc.
7. Conduct the survey on common communicable diseases prevailing in local area. Prepare a report by including the disease, causes, preventing measures.
8. Prepare a report on trends, causes and consequences of migration in local level.
9. Prepare functional models of different system of human body.
Note: The above are only the specimens of activities. In order to arouse creativity, the students must be encouraged to take up new activities (other than mentioned above) in consultation with the teacher concerned.
Reference and Source
Secondary Education Curriculum, Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Government of Nepal.