Torovirus- An Overview

Classification of Torovirus Group IV: ssRNA positive strand virus Order: Nidovirales Family: Coronaviridae Subfamily: Toronavirinae Genus: Torovirus Structure of Torovirus Torovirusis a genus of viruses in the order Nidovirales, in the family Coronaviridae, in the subfamily Torovirinae. Toroviruses are pleomorphic, enveloped particles, 120–140 nm in diameter. The … Read more

Hepatitis A Virus- An Overview

Clinical Manifestations of Hepatitis A Virus

Structure of Hepatitis A Virus HAV (Hepatitis A Virus) is a distinct member of the picornavirus family, assigned to genus hepatovirus. HAV is a 27 nm to 32 nm spherical particle with icosahedral symmetry containing a linear single-stranded RNA genome with … Read more

Rotavirus- An Overview

Rota Virus- Structure, Genome, Epidemiology, Replication, Pathogenesis, Clinical Manifestation, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Vaccination, Prevention and Control

Structure of Rotavirus The name rotavirus is derived from the Latin word rota, meaning “wheel,” which refers to the virion’s appearance in negative-stained electron micrographs. Rotavirus falls under Reoviridae family and subfamily Sedoreovirinae, which appear more smooth, lacking the large … Read more

Human Cytomegalovirus- An Overview

Structure of Human Cytomegalovirus Figure: Structure of Human Cytomegalo Virus, Source: Dr. Marko Reschke, Marburg, Germany Cytomegalovirus is a member of the herpes virus family that falls under the beta herpes subfamily. CMV is spherical in shape with icosahedral symmetry. … Read more

Measles Virus- An Overview

Measles Virus

Measles Virus Image Source: BBC Structure Measles virus is the prototypic member of the Morbillivirus genus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Measles virus is spherical with a diameter ranging from 100 to 300 nm and has two major structural components: one … Read more

Rabies Virus- An Overview

Rabies Virus

Structure of Rabies Virus The virus is enveloped, rod shaped particles measuring 75 × 180 nm. Mature virion appears either as bullet shaped particles with one rounded and one flattened end or as bacilliform particles. The particles are surrounded by a … Read more

Hepatitis C virus- An Overview

Hepatitis C virus

Structure of Hepatitis C virus Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a RNA virus belonging to the family Flaviviridae, genus Hepacivirus. The HCV virion is 55-65 nm in diameter containing in it a 9.6 kb positive sense single-stranded RNA genome composed of … Read more

Positive staining of Viruses

Positive staining of Viruses

What is positive staining? Positive staining of viruses is similar to negative staining. The difference is that the virus image is darker formed on a light background, unlike the negative staining where a light viral particle image is formed on … Read more

Coronavirus- An Overview

Coronavirus

Structure of Coronavirus Coronaviruses fall in the virus family Coronaviridae, order Nidovirales. Coronaviruses are enveloped, 120 to 160 nm particles that contain an unsegmented genome of single-stranded positive-sense RNA (27–32 kb). The large, plus-stranded RNA genome associates with the N protein … Read more

Varicella Zoster Virus- An Overview

Varicella Zoster Virus

Structure of Varicella Zoster Virus Image Source: Creative Diagnostics Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is an alphaherpesvirus that is in the same subfamily as herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and 2. VZV is a member of varicellovirus genus. The virion is spherical … Read more

Classification of virus

Baltimore Classification

Viruses are small obligate intracellular parasites, which by definition contain either a RNA or DNA genome surrounded by a protective, virus-coded protein coat. Viruses range from the structurally simple and small parvoviruses and picornaviruses to the large and complex poxviruses … Read more

Virus Cultivation- Purposes and Methods

Virus Cultivation- Purposes and Methods

Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites so they depend on host for their survival. They cannot be grown in non-living culture media or on agar plates alone, they must require living cells to support their replication. The primary purposes of virus … Read more

Mumps Virus- An Overview

Mumps Virus

Structure of Mumps Virus Mumps virions are markedly pleomorphic (100 to 600 nm), and roughly spherical with an outer membrane that envelops an inner, coiled helical structure. The envelope which is 150 to 300nm is studded with projections formed by … Read more

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1)- An Overview

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1)

Structure of Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) Herpesviruses are large (150-200 nm size), spherical in shape with icosahedral symmetry. The icosahedral protein capsid with average diameter 100 nm consists of 162 hollow hexagonal and pentagonal capsomeres with an electron-dense core … Read more

Influenza A Virus- An Overview

Influenza A Virus

Structure of Influenza A Virus Influenza A virus falls under the family Orthomyxoviridae. Influenza A virus particles are usually spherical and about 80- 120 nm in diameter. It is an enveloped virus and the envelope contains two glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and … Read more

Polio Virus- An Overview

Polio Virus

Structure of Polio Virus Poliovirus is a member of a family of viruses called the Picornaviridae. Virions are spherical in shape with a diameter of about 27nm. The particles are simple in that they are composed of a protein shell surrounding … Read more

Japanese Encephalitis (JE) Virus- An Overview

Japanese Encephalitis (JE) Virus

Structure of Japanese Encephalitis (JE) Virus Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus falls under the family Flaviviridae. The particles appear to be spherical, 50 nm in diameter, containing an electron dense core (about 30 nm diameter) surrounded by a lipid bilayer. Mature virions … Read more

Hepatitis E Virus- An Overview

Hepatitis E Virus

Structure of Hepatitis E Virus Image: Schematic illustration of non-enveloped and quasi-enveloped HEV particles as well as enveloped virus. The putative model of quasi-enveloped HEV virion includes ORF3 product in its envelope as the existence of pORF3 has been confirmed by … Read more