Signs and Symptoms of COVID-19 with Risk factors

Signs and Symptoms of COVID-19

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious respiratory tract infection caused by SARS-CoV-2. The mode of transmission for this disease is through close physical contact and small droplets that develop during coughing, sneezing, and even talking. Even though these droplets might be inhaled during breathing, this disease is not considered air-borne according to WHO. The incubation period, the duration from …

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Structure and Genome of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) with diagram

Structure and Genome of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) with diagram

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are enveloped positive sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that belong to the subfamily Coronavirinae, family Coronavirdiae, order Nidovirales. Four genera of CoVs, namely, Alphacoronavirus (αCoV), Betacoronavirus (βCoV), Deltacoronavirus (δCoV), and Gammacoronavirus (γCoV), are distinguished. This group of viruses is of zoonotic origin with αCoV and βCoV found in bats and rodents while δCoV and γCoV are found in avian …

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Hanta Virus- An Overview

Hanta Virus

Structure of Hanta Virus Source: Viral Zone Hantavirus falls under the Bunyaviridae family. The virion displays round or pleomorphic morphology with a diameter of roughly 120-160 nm. The virus capsid is enveloped by a single layer envelope. The envelope surrounds three nucleocapsids and has surface projections. Surface projections are distinctive spikes which are surrounded by a prominent fringe embedded in a …

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Human Cytomegalovirus- An Overview

Structure of Human Cytomegalovirus Figure: Structure of Human Cytomegalo Virus, Source: Dr. Marko Reschke, Marburg, Germany Cytomegalovirus is a member of the herpes virus family that falls under the beta herpes subfamily. CMV is spherical in shape with icosahedral symmetry. The icosahedral protein capsid with an average diameter of 100 nm consists of 162 hollow hexagonal and pentagonal capsomeres with …

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Measles Virus- An Overview

Measles Virus

Measles Virus Image Source: BBC Structure Measles virus is the prototypic member of the Morbillivirus genus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Measles virus is spherical with a diameter ranging from 100 to 300 nm and has two major structural components: one is the helical ribonucleoprotein (RNP) core formed by the association of the nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P) and large protein (L) …

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Coronavirus- An Overview


Structure of Coronavirus Coronaviruses fall in the virus family Coronaviridae, order Nidovirales. Coronaviruses are enveloped, 120 to 160 nm particles that contain an unsegmented genome of single-stranded positive-sense RNA (27–32 kb). The large, plus-stranded RNA genome associates with the N protein to form a helical nucleocapsid. The helical nucleocapsid is 9–11 nm in diameter. There are 20 nm long club or …

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Varicella Zoster Virus- An Overview

Varicella Zoster Virus

Structure of Varicella Zoster Virus Image Source: Creative Diagnostics Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is an alphaherpesvirus that is in the same subfamily as herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and 2. VZV is a member of varicellovirus genus. The virion is spherical in shape with icosahedral symmetry measuring 159-200nm. The icosahedral protein capsid with average diameter 100 nm consists of 162 hollow …

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Oncogenic Viruses- An Overview

Oncogenic Viruses

Viruses are intracellular pathogens that reproduce only in the living cell and manipulate the cellular machinery to produce more viruses. Viral replications can affect the cellular genes of the host in multiple cancerous ways. An oncovirus is a virus that can cause cancer. Viruses account for about 20% of total human cancer cases. Although many viruses can cause various tumors in animals, only seven of …

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Classification of virus

Baltimore Classification

Viruses are small obligate intracellular parasites, which by definition contain either a RNA or DNA genome surrounded by a protective, virus-coded protein coat. Viruses range from the structurally simple and small parvoviruses and picornaviruses to the large and complex poxviruses and herpesviruses. Viruses are classified on the basis of morphology, chemical composition, and mode of replication. The viruses that infect …

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Virus Cultivation- Purposes and Methods

Virus Cultivation- Purposes and Methods

Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites so they depend on host for their survival. They cannot be grown in non-living culture media or on agar plates alone, they must require living cells to support their replication. The primary purposes of virus cultivation is: To isolate and identify viruses in clinical samples. Demonstration of virus in appropriate clinical specimens by culture establishes …

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