Auramine- Rhodamine Staining

Auramine- Rhodamine Staining

What is Auramine- Rhodamine Staining? The evolution in staining methodologies has led to an era of modified staining techniques that are rapid, more versatile, and reliable in result interpretation. This is one of those techniques which was modified from the Acid Fast staining technique know as Ziehl-Neelsen Staining of Mycobacterium spp of bacteria. The major difference between these two techniques …

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Papanicolaou Staining (Pap stain) for Pap Smear / Pap Test

Papanicolaou Staining (Pap stain) - Pap smear

What is Papanicolaou Staining (Pap stain)? Papanicolaou stain is also known as the pap stain and the procedure of the stain is known as a pap smear. It is a polychromatic stain that uses multiple dyes to differentially stain various components of the cells. It is a histological and cytopathological staining technique used to differentiate cells in a smear preparation. …

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Ziehl-Neelsen Staining- Principle and Procedure with Results

Procedure for Ziehl-Neelsen Staining

What is Ziehl-Neelsen staining? The Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique is a differential staining technique that was initially developed by Ziehl and modified later by Neelsen, hence the name Ziehl-Neelsen stain. Neelsen used carbol-fuschin from Ziehl’s experiment, with heat and added a decolorizing agent using acid-alcohol and a counterstain using methylene blue dye, thus developing the Ziehl-Neelsen Technique of staining. The use …

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Lactophenol Cotton Blue (LPCB) Staining

Lactophenol Cotton Blue (LPCB) Staining

Lactophenol Cotton Blue (LPCB) Staining is a simple histological staining method used for the microscopic examination and identification of fungi. Principle of Lactophenol Cotton Blue (LPCB) Staining Lactophenol Cotton Blue (LPCB) Staining method works on the principle of aiding the identification of the fungal cell walls. Fungi are eukaryotic organisms with both macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. The fungal spore cell …

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Hematoxylin and eosin stain (H and E stain or HE stain)

Hematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E stain or HE stain)

Hematoxylin and eosin staining technique functions to recognize different types of tissues and their morphological changes, especially in cancer diagnosis. Hematoxylin has a deep blue-purple color and stains nucleic acids by a complex, incompletely understood reaction. Eosin is pink and stains proteins nonspecifically. In a typical tissue, nuclei are stained blue, whereas the cytoplasm and extracellular matrix have varying degrees …

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Calcofluor White Staining

Calcofluor White Staining

Calcofluor White Staining Calcofluor white is a chemifluorescent blue dye that is nonspecifically used to bind to the beta linked-polysaccharide polymers of amoebic cysts. It functions by being able to bind to 1-3 beta and 1-4 beta polysaccharides on chitin and cellulose that is present in cell walls on fungi, plants, and algae. Due to the speed in examining the …

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Grocott-Gomori’s Methenamine Silver Staining

Grocott-Gomori's Methenamine Silver Staining

Grocott-Gomori’s Methenamine Silver (GMS) stain is a histological stain that is used majorly for the identification of carbohydrates in fungal microorganisms. This staining method was named after György Gömöri, a physician from Hungary, who developed the staining methodology. Its initial application to assess missing tissues and diseases in the liver and the rectum (Nadworny, Wang, Tredget, & Robert, 2010) and …

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Giemsa Stain- Principle, Procedure, Results, Interpretation

Giemsa Stain- Principle, Procedure, Results, Interpretation

Introduction Giemsa stain was a name adopted from a Germany Chemist scientist, for his application of a combination of reagents in demonstrating the presence of parasites in malaria. It belongs to a group of stains known as Romanowsky stains. These are neutral stains made up of a mixture of oxidized methylene blue, azure, and Eosin Y and they performed on …

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Gram Stain- Principle, Reagents, Procedure, Steps, Results

Gram Staining Procedure

The Gram stain was developed by Christian Gram in 1884 and modified by Hucker in 1921. The objective of Gram Stain This test differentiates the bacteria into Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria, which helps in the classification and differentiation of microorganisms. The Gram stain separates bacteria into two groups: (1) Gram-positive microorganisms that retain the primary dye (Crystal violet) and (2) …

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Albert Staining- Principle, Reagents, Procedure, Results, Interpretation

Albert Staining- Principle, Reagents, Procedure, Results, Interpretation

Special stains have been developed over time for identifying bacteria species, differentiating them morphologically, and even characterizing there very special features. The most common stain being Gram Staining, Acid-fast staining, endospore staining. Each of these stains aims at identifying and characterizing bacteria based on their morphologies. Albert stain is no different. Its application aim at identifying bacteria that contain special …

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