Endospore Staining- Types, principle, procedure and Interpretation

Endospore Staining- Types, principle, procedure and Interpretation

Introduction A normal bacterial cell is known as a vegetative form of a bacterial cell. It can multiply freely when provided with conducive environmental conditions like the provision of nutrients, temperature, water, and oxygen. But some groups of bacteria, when exposed to unfavorable conditions such us, lack of nutrients, an insufficient supply of oxygen or CO2, lack of water and …

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Flagella Stain- Principle, Procedure and Result Interpretation

Flagella Stain- Principle, Procedure and Result Interpretation

Objective of Flagella Stain This technique is used to visualize the presence and arrangement of flagella for the presumptive identification of motile bacterial species. Principle of Flagella Stain Flagella are too thin to be visualized using a bright field microscope with ordinary stains, such as the Gram stain, or a simple stain. A wet mount technique is used for staining …

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Spore Stain- Principle, Procedure and Result Interpretation

Spore Stain- Principle, Procedure and Result Interpretation

Members of the anaerobic genera Clostridium and Desulfotomaculum and the aerobic genus Bacillus are examples of organisms that have the capacity to exist either as metabolically active vegetative cells or as highly resistant, metabolically inactive cell types called spores. When environmental conditions become unfavorable for continuing vegetative cellular activities, particularly with the exhaustion of a nutritional carbon source, these cells …

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Capsule Stain- Principle, Procedure and Result Interpretation

A capsule is a gelatinous outer layer that is secreted by the cell and that surrounds and adheres to the cell wall. It is not common to all organisms. Cells that have a heavy capsule are generally virulent and capable of producing disease, since the structure protects bacteria against the normal phagocytic activities of host cells. Chemically, the capsular material …

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Negative Staining- Principle, Procedure and Result Interpretation

Negative Staining- Principle, Procedure and Result Interpretation

Objectives of Negative Staining To perform a negative staining procedure. To understand the benefit obtained from visualizing unstained microorganisms. Principle of Negative Staining Negative staining requires the use of an acidic stain such as India ink or nigrosin. The acidic stain, with its negatively charged chromogen, will not penetrate the cells because of the negative charge on the surface of …

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Simple Staining- Principle, Procedure and Result Interpretation

Simple Staining- Principle, Procedure and Result Interpretation

Objectives of Simple Staining To perform a simple staining procedure. To compare the morphological shapes and arrangements of bacterial cells. Principle of Simple Staining In simple staining, the bacterial smear is stained with a single reagent, which produces a distinctive contrast between the organism and its background. Basic stains with a positively charged chromogen are preferred because bacterial nucleic acids and certain …

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Acridine Orange Stain- Principle, Procedure and Result Interpretation

Acridine Orange Stain- Principle, Procedure and Result Interpretation

Objective Differential staining of nucleic acids including DNA and RNA. Principle Acridine orange, a vital stain, will intercalate with nucleic acid, changing the dye’s optical characteristics so that it will fluoresce bright orange under ultraviolet light. All nucleic acid–containing cells will fluoresce orange. Acridine orange is a metachromatic stain and under appropriate conditions, RNA will stain orange and DNA will …

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Acid Fast Stain (Kinyoun-Cold Method)- Principle, Procedure and Result Interpretation

Acid Fast (Kinyoun-Cold Method)- Principle, Procedure and Result Interpretation

Objective of Kinyoun-Cold Method Identification of acid-fast Mycobacterium spp. and parasites such as Cryptosporidium and Isopora spp. Principle of Kinyoun-Cold Method Acid-fast mycobacteria contain mycolic acid in their outer membrane, making the cells waxy and resistant to staining with aqueous based stains such as the Gram stain. The primary stain, carbolfuchsin, is applied to the cells and phenol is used to allow …

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Acid Fast Stain- Principle, Reagents, Procedure and Result Interpretation

Acid Fast Stain- Principle, Reagents, Procedure and Result Interpretation

It is also know as Ziehl-Neelsen stain. Objective of Acid Fast Stain The main aim objective of this stain is to differentiate bacteria into acid fast group and non-acid fast groups. Principle of Acid Fast Stain Acid-fast mycobacteria contain mycolic acid in their outer membrane, making the cells waxy and resistant to staining with aqueous based stains such as the Gram …

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