Normal Human Microbiota

Normal Human Microbiota

Through normal everyday activities, the human body is exposed to microorganisms in the environment. Hundreds of species and countless individual microbial cells, collectively called the normal microflora, grow on or in the human body. This is the human microbiome, the sum total of all microorganisms that live on or in the human body. The normal … Read moreNormal Human Microbiota

Habitat and Morphology of Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Habitat and Morphology of Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Habitat of Mycoplasma pneumoniae They are found in the mucosa of upper respiratory tract (UTR) and urogenital tract of humans. Also found in oral cavity. They are also present in sewage, plants, animals, insects, humans and hot springs. They grow slowly than bacteria. They are self-replicating bacteria. They are atypical bacteria. They do not grow … Read moreHabitat and Morphology of Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Habitat and Morphology of Mycobacterium leprae

Habitat and Morphology of Mycobacterium leprae

Habitat of Mycobacterium leprae They are found in soil, water and air. Found in the soils where the leprosy infected people live. Most of them are non-pathogenic and non-parasitic. Found in warm tropical countries. Mycobacterium leprae are found in the peripheral nerves of humans. Found in the cold parts of the body like hand, feet … Read moreHabitat and Morphology of Mycobacterium leprae

Habitat and Morphology of Streptococcus pneumoniae

Habitat and Morphology of Streptococcus pneumoniae

Habitat of Streptococcus pneumoniae Streptococcus pneumoniae are found worldwide. Found in primates, livestock and felines. They are the part of normal flora of upper respiratory tract infection in humans. Mostly found in throat and nasal passage. They infection mostly children in winter seasons. They are Mesophilic, 30 to 35°C. Morphology of Streptococcus pneumoniae They are … Read moreHabitat and Morphology of Streptococcus pneumoniae

 Virulence factors, Pathogenesis and Clinical manifestations of Legionella pneumophila

 Virulence factors, Pathogenesis and Clinical manifestations of Legionella pneumophila

 Virulence factors of Legionella pneumophila Heat shock protein 60: enhances invasion and cytokine expression in macrophages. Outer membrane protein: binding with and delivery of packaged materials into the eukaryotic cells. inhibit the fusion of phagosomes with lysosomes. Macrophage infectivity potentiator (Mip) protein: promotes adherence and phagocytosis. Genes encoding for the type II secretion systems required for … Read more Virulence factors, Pathogenesis and Clinical manifestations of Legionella pneumophila

Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Coxiella burnetii

Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Coxiella burnetii

Laboratory Diagnosis of Coxiella burnetii Specimen: Blood, tissues from cardiac valve Culture Culture can be performed in tissue culture cells using human embryonic lung fibroblast cell lines, and recently in a cell-free medium; however, culture is rarely performed except in research laboratories licensed to work with these highly contagious organisms. Serology Serology is the most … Read moreLaboratory Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Coxiella burnetii

Pathogenesis and Clinical Manifestations of Mycobacterium leprae

Pathogenesis and Clinical Manifestations of Mycobacterium leprae

Pathogenesis of Mycobacterium leprae M. leprae is an acid-fast, gram-positive obligate intracellular bacillus that shows tropism for cells of the reticuloendothelial system and peripheral nervous system (notably Schwann cells). Organisms may be acquired by the susceptible host usually through respiratory system or by way of skin to skin contact (between exudates of a leprosy patient’s skin … Read morePathogenesis and Clinical Manifestations of Mycobacterium leprae

Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control of Chlamydia trachomatis

Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control of Chlamydia trachomatis

Laboratory Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis Specimen Urethral discharge, cervix swab, rectum, oropharynx, and conjunctiva swab are the frequently collected specimens. In addition, other specimens such as, blood, urine, respiratory secretions, sputum, lung, and other tissues are collected and examined. Pus from bubo is also useful for diagnosis of LGV. Microscopy Demonstration of chlamydial inclusion bodies … Read moreLaboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control of Chlamydia trachomatis

Pathogenesis and Clinical Manifestations of Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Pathogenesis and Clinical Manifestations of Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Pathogenesis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae M. pneumoniae is an extracellular pathogen transmitted by respiratory droplets expectorated during coughing which then adheres to the respiratory epithelium by means of a specialized attachment structure that forms at one end of the cell. M. pneumoniae possesses a membrane-associated protein, P1, which functions as a cytoadhesin. The adhesions interact specifically … Read morePathogenesis and Clinical Manifestations of Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Pathogenesis and Clinical Manifestations of Coxiella burnetii

Pathogenesis and Clinical Manifestations of Coxiella burnetii

Pathogenesis of Coxiella burnetii Human infection usually follows inhalation of aerosols containing C. burnetii. It is estimated that only between 1 and 10 bacteria are necessary to cause infection. C. burnetii has also been known to enter the body via other mucous membranes, abrasions, and the gastrointestinal tract through consumption of milk from infected animals. C. burnetii … Read morePathogenesis and Clinical Manifestations of Coxiella burnetii