Starch Hydrolysis Test- Objectives, Principle, Procedure and Results

Result interpretation of Starch Hydrolysis Test

Objectives of Starch Hydrolysis Test To determine the ability of the organism capable of hydrolyzing starch. To differentiate organisms based on their ability to hydrolyze starch with the enzyme, α- amylase. It aids in the differentiation of species from genera Corynebacterium, Clostridium, Bacillus, Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, and members of Enterococcus. Principle of Starch Hydrolysis Test Starch is a complex carbohydrate (polysaccharide), composed of two …

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Oxidation-Fermentation (OF) Test

Result Interpretation of OF Test

Objective of OF Test To differentiate microorganisms based on the ability to oxidize or ferment specific carbohydrates. Principle of OF Test Carbohydrates are organic molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio (CH2O)n. Organisms use carbohydrate differently depending upon their enzyme complement. The pattern of fermentation is characteristics of certain species, genera or groups of organisms and for this …

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Oxidase Test- Principle, Procedure and Results

Result Interpretation of Oxidase Test

Objective of Oxidase Test To determine the ability of the organism to produce the cytochrome oxidase enzyme. Principle of Oxidase Test The oxidase test is designed for specifically detecting the presence of the terminal enzyme system in aerobic respiration called cytochrome C oxidase or cytochrome a3. Cytochrome C oxidase is the terminal or last H2 electron acceptor in aerobic respiratory mechanism …

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4-Methylumbelliferyl-β-D-Glucuronide (MUG) Test

4-Methylumbelliferyl-β-D-Glucuronide (MUG) Test

Objective of MUG Test To identify various genera of Enterobacteriaceae and verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli. Principle of MUG Test β-D-Glucuronidase is an enzyme produced by most strains of E. coli and other Enterobacteriaceae  which hydrolyzes β-d-glucopyranosid-uronic derivatives to aglycons and d-glucuronic acid. The substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide is impregnated in the disc. MUG is an acronym for 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide, a fluorogenic substrate of β-glucuronidase.  The …

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MRS Broth Test- Principle, Procedure and Results

Result Interpretation of MRS Broth Test

Objectives of MRS Broth Test It is used for the cultivation and enumeration of lactobacilli in a laboratory setting To determine the ability of organism to form gas during glucose fermentation Principle of MRS Broth Test MRS Broth is an improved medium for lactobacilli, it supports good growth and is particularly useful for a number of fastidious strains which grow poorly on other …

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O-Nitrophenyl-β-D-Galactopyranoside (ONPG) Test

O-Nitrophenyl-β-D-Galactopyranoside (ONPG) Test

Objectives of ONPG Test To determine the ability of an organism to produce β-galactosidase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes the substrate ONPG to form a visible (yellow) product, orthonitrophenol To distinguish late lactose fermenters from non–lactose fermenters of Enterobacteriaceae Principle of ONPG Test The sugar lactose is a disaccharide of galactose and glucose joined by a β-galactoside bond. The ability of bacteria …

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Motility Test- Principle, Procedure and Results

Motility Test- Principle, Procedure and Results

Objectives of Motility Test To determine the motility of bacterium. To differentiate between motile and non motile bacteria. Principle of Motility Test Motility is the ability of an organism to move by itself by means of propeller-like flagella unique to bacteria or by special fibrils that produce a gliding form of motility. Motile  bacteria  move  using   flagella, thread like  locomotor  appendages  extending  …

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Nitrate Reduction Test- Objectives, Principle, Procedure and Results

Result Interpretation of Nitrate Reduction Test

Objectives of Nitrate Reduction Test To determine the ability organism to produce an enzyme called nitrate reductase, resulting in the reduction of nitrate (NO3). It also tests the ability of organisms to perform nitrification on nitrate and nitrite to produce molecular nitrogen. Principle of Nitrate Reduction Test All members of the Enterobacteriaceae family reduce nitrate to nitrite, but some members further metabolize nitrite …

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Microdase (Modified Oxidase) Test- Principle, Procedure and Results

Result Interpretation of Microdase (Modified Oxidase) Test

Objective of Microdase (Modified Oxidase) Test This test is used to differentiate gram-positive, catalase-positive cocci (micrococci from staphylococci). Principle of Microdase (Modified Oxidase) Test The microdase test, also known as modified oxidase test is a rapid test to differentiate Staphylococcus from Micrococcus which are Gram positive cocci possessing catalase enzyme. The differentiation is based on the detection of oxidase enzyme. For the detection of …

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Malonate Test- Objectives, Principle, Procedure and Results

Result Interpretation of Malonate Test

Objectives of Malonate Test To test the ability of the organism to utilize malonate as sole source of carbon. The Malonate Test was originally designed to differentiate between Escherichia, which will not grow in the medium, and Enterobacter. Its use as a differential medium has now broadened to include other members of Enterobacteriaceae. Principle of Malonate Test An organism that simultaneously can utilize …

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