1) What is the genome present inside the virus?
- Either DNA or RNA but not both.
2) What is the genome present in Coronavirus?
3) Can we observe virus in general laboratory using a light microscope?
- No, they are too small whose size ranges from 20-250 nm in size. To see the virus, we need an electron microscope.
4) What is the protective coat like structure present in the virus called?
5) What is capsid made of?
- They are the smaller subunit of protein.
6) What is capsomere made of?
- Protomers. It’s the polypeptide chain.
7) What are the different shapes of viruses ?
8) Antibiotics should be used against bacteria or viruses?
- Bacteria only.
Read Also: Mycology VIVA Question and Answer
9) What are bacteriophage?
- The virus that infects bacteria are known as bacteriophage or phage.
10) What is viremia?
- The presence of virus in blood is known as viraemia.
11) What is virion?
- It is a complete virus particle that is infectious.
12) What are pseudovirions ?
- Pseudovirions are the viruses which enclose host cell nucleic acid instead of viral nucleic acid.
13) What are viroids?
- Viroids are protein-free fragments of single-stranded, circular RNA that cause disease in plants.
14) What is viropexis?
- The receptor-bound virus is taken inside the cell through the process of endocytosis which is known as viropexis.
15) What are prions?
- Prions are the proteinaceous infectious particles which can transmit a disease.
16) What is the cytopathic effect?
- When the cell is infected by virus, visible change occurs in the appearance of target cells which is known as cytopathic effect.
17) Can we grow viruses in artificial media?
- Viruses are not capable of independent growth in artificial media.
- They can grow only in cells of animals or plants or in micro-organisms.
18) What is the difference between the lytic cycle and the lysogenic cycle?
- Lytic cycle: Lysis of the host cell, releasing the new phages to infect other host cells.
- Lysogenic cycle: Incorporation of the viral DNA into the host DNA, no lysis of the cell.
19) Example of a single-stranded DNA virus.
- Parvovirus @Mnemonics: PARVati is single DoN.
20) Example of double-stranded RNA virus.
- Reovirus @Mnemonics: REad RNA double time.
21) What are the difference between positive-strand (positive sense) and negative-strand (negative sense).
- Depending on the method of mRNA transcription, single-stranded RNA viruses are classified as + and – strand.
- + strand (sense ) RNA virus : Viral RNA itself acts as the mRNA and is translated directly into viral proteins in host cell cytoplasm.
- – strand (sense ) RNA virus : Need to be converted first into + sense RNA then only translation occurs.
22) Outline the process of virus replication?
- Attachment ( or adsorption )
- Penetration ( or uptake )
23) Give examples of DNA virus:
- Herpes virus
- Hepadna virus
- Papovavirus @Mnemonics: PARVati HelPed HER PAPa ADding fOX who was DoN ( DNA) .
24) Give examples of an RNA virus:
- Toga virus
- Calci virus
- Orthomyxo virus
- Paramyxo virus
- Rhabdo virus
- Reovirus @Mnemonics: BaNYA ARE REading RNA OR CALL TO CORONA PICORNA
25) Give examples of some antiviral drugs.
- Ribavirin @Mnemonics: AuNTI VIRA saw RIAZ‘s “PEN” GANg on A CYCle taking Drugs
26) Give examples of viruses having icosahedral shape?
- Herpes virus
- Adenovirus @ Mnemonics: HI ISA ADd HER RHINo Post
27) Give example of helical viruses.
- Influenza virus
- Rabies virus
- Tobacco mosaic virus
28) Example of a complex virus:
29 ) Example of plant virus:
- Tobacco Mosaic Virus
- Cauliflower Mosaic Virus
- Alfalfa Mosaic Virus
30) Example of a bacterial virus:
- λ phage
- T4 phage
31) Example of an insect virus:
- Arbo virus
- Flavi virus
32) Example of animal and human virus:
- Rabies virus
- Pox virus
- Influenza virus
- Herpes virus
33) Define the term:
- Dermatotropic virus: Virus that affects the skin and skin tissue. Examples: Poxvirus, Measles virus
- Viscerotropic virus: Virus that affects visceral organ. Examples: Hepatitis B virus, HIV, Cytomegalovirus, Polyomavirus
- Neurotropic virus: Virus that affects nerve and nervous tissue. Examples: Poliovirus, Rabies virus, Dengue virus, Japanese Encephalitis virus
- Enteric virus: Viruses that affect the tissue of intestine . Examples: Rotavirus and Picornavirus
- Respiratory virus: Viruses that affect the tissue of the respiratory tract. Examples: Influenza virus, Parainfluenza virus, Respiratory syncytial virus, Rhinovirus
34) Intracytoplasmic Inclusion bodies produced in Viral infection:
- Negri bodies: Rabies virus
- Molluscum bodies: Molluscum contagiosum virus
- Guarnieri bodies: Vaccinia virus
- Bollinger bodies: Fowlpox virus
- Perinuclear cytoplasmic acidophilic bodies: Reovirus
35) Intranuclear Inclusion bodies produced in Viral infection :
- Owl eye inclusion bodies: Cytomegalovirus
- Cowdry type A inclusion bodies: Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and measles virus
- Intranuclear basophilic: Adenovirus
- Acidophilic inclusion bodies: Papova virus
References and Sources
- Parija SC (2016), Textbook of Microbiology and Immunology, 3rd edition, Elsevier India.
- Pelczar MJ, Chan ECS, Krieng NR (1993), Microbiology, 5th edition, Tata McGraw Hill Publication.
- Mandal PK (2016), A Textbook of Microbiology for Nursing, 2nd edition, Vidyarthi Pustak Bhandar.
- 1% – https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/double-stranded-rna-virus
- 1% – https://www.bartleby.com/solution-answer/chapter-24-problem-1tyu-biology-mindtap-course-list-11th-edition/9781337392938/the-genome-of-a-virus-consists-of-a-dna-b-rna-c-prions-d-dna-and-rna-e-dna-or-rna/d5e93725-560e-11e9-8385-02ee952b546e
- 1% – https://www.atsu.edu/faculty/chamberlain/website/diseases.htm
- 1% – https://quizlet.com/143905453/biol-2240-chapter-3-flash-cards/
- <1% – https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/viroids
- <1% – https://www.khanacademy.org/science/high-school-biology/hs-human-body-systems/hs-the-immune-system/v/viral-replicaiton-lytic-vs-lysogenic
- <1% – https://www.differencebetween.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/Difference-Between-Positive-and-Negative-Sense-RNA-Virus.pdf
- <1% – https://quizlet.com/42323838/micro-chapter-25-rna-viruses-flash-cards/
- <1% – https://quizlet.com/337288140/micro-exam-chapter-13-flash-cards/
- <1% – https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/inclusion+bodies