Types of Centrifuge and Centrifugation (definition, principle, uses)

Types of Centrifuge and Centrifugation

Centrifuge definition A centrifuge is a device used to separate components of a mixture on the basis of their size, density, the viscosity of the medium, and the rotor speed. The centrifuge is commonly used in laboratories for the separation of biological molecules from a crude extract. In a centrifuge, the sample is kept in a rotor that is rotated about a fixed point (axis), resulting in strong force perpendicular to the axis. There are different types of centrifuge used … Read more

Spectrophotometer- Principle, Instrumentation, Applications

Spectrophotometer- Principle, Instrumentation, Applications

What is a spectrophotometer? A spectrophotometer is an instrument that measures the amount of light absorbed by a sample. Spectrophotometer techniques are mostly used to measure the concentration of solutes in solution by measuring the amount of the light that is absorbed by the solution in a cuvette placed in the spectrophotometer. Scientist Arnold J. Beckman and his colleagues at the National Technologies Laboratory (NTL) invented the Beckman DU spectrophotometer in 1940. Principle of Spectrophotometer The spectrophotometer technique is to … Read more

Flow Cytometry-Definition, Principle, Parts, Steps, Types, Uses

Flow Cytometry-Definition, Principle, Parts, Steps, Types, Uses

Flow Cytometry Definition Flow cytometry is a standard laser-based technology that is used in the detection and measurement of physical and chemical characteristics of cells or particles in a heterogeneous fluid mixture. The use of flow cytometry has increased over the years as it provides a rapid analysis of multiple characteristics (both qualitative and quantitative) of the cells. The properties that can be measured by this process include a particle’s size, granularity or internal complexity, and fluorescence intensity. These characteristics … Read more

Mass Spectrometry (MS)- Principle, Working, Instrumentation, Steps, Applications

Mass Spectrometry (MS)

Mass Spectrometry (MS) Definition Mass Spectrometry (MS) is an analytical chemistry technique that helps identify the amount and type of chemicals present in a sample by measuring the mass-to-charge ratio and abundance of gas-phase ions. In this instrumental technique, the sample is converted to rapidly moving positive ions by electron bombardment and charged particles are separated according to their masses. A mass spectrum is a plot of relative abundance against the ratio of mass/charge (m/e). These spectra are used to … Read more

22 Types of Spectroscopy with Definition, Principle, Steps, Uses

Types of Spectroscopy

What is spectroscopy? Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between light and matter where the absorption and emission of light or other radiation by the matter are studied and measured. Spectroscopy mainly deals with the dispersion of light and other radiations that is caused by an object which allows the study of various properties of the object. The measurement in spectroscopy is a function of the wavelength of the radiation being observed. Spectroscopy has been widely exploited as it … Read more

Ultracentrifuge- Definition, Principle, Types, Parts, Procedure, Uses


Ultracentrifuge Definition Ultracentrifuge is a sophisticated and advanced centrifuge that operates at an extremely high speed and separates smaller molecules that cannot be separated from the traditional centrifuges. The speed of the rotors in ultracentrifuge can range from 60,000 rpm to 150,000 rpm. Ultracentrifuges are mostly operated in more facilitated laboratories to perform more advanced operations. These are larger in size and can operate samples either in batches or as a continuous flow system. Most ultracentrifuges are refrigerated in order … Read more

Laminar flow hood/cabinet- definition, parts, principle, types, uses

Laminar flow hood or cabinet

Definition A Laminar flow hood/cabinet is an enclosed workstation that is used to create a contamination-free work environment through filters to capture all the particles entering the cabinet. These cabinets are designed to protect the work from the environment and are most useful for the aseptic distribution of specific media and plate pouring. Laminar flow cabinets are similar to biosafety cabinets with the only difference being that in laminar flow cabinets the effluent air is drawn into the face of … Read more

14 Types of Chromatography (Definition, Principle, Steps, Uses)

Types of Chromatography (Definition, Principle, Steps, Uses)

Chromatography Definition Chromatography is an important biophysical technique that enables the separation, identification, and purification of the components of a mixture for qualitative and quantitative analysis. A wide range of chromatographic procedures makes use of differences in size, binding affinities, charge, and other properties to separate materials. It is a powerful separation tool that is used in all branches of science and is often the only means of separating components from complex mixtures. Chromatography is a very useful technique as … Read more

Gel Filtration Chromatography

Gel Filtration Chromatography

Biomolecules are purified using different techniques that separate them according to the differences in their specific properties such as size, hydrophobicity, biorecognition, charge, etc. Gel filtration is a technique in which the separation of components is based on the difference in molecular weight or size. It is the simplest and mildest of all the chromatography techniques and separates molecules on the basis of differences in size. Principle of Gel Filtration Chromatography Image Source: MBL Life Science. To perform a separation, … Read more

Gel Permeation Chromatography

Gel Permeation Chromatography

Gel permeation chromatography is also called as gel filtration or size exclusion chromatography. In size exclusion chromatography, the stationary phase is a porous matrix made up of compounds like cross-linked polystyrene, cross-like dextrans, polyacrylamide gels, agarose gels, etc. The separation is based on the analyte molecular sizes since the gel behaves like a molecular sieve. This technique is used for the separation of proteins, polysaccharides, enzymes, and synthetic polymers. As a technique, size exclusion chromatography was first developed in 1955 … Read more