Gel Permeation Chromatography

Gel Permeation Chromatography

Gel permeation chromatography is also called as gel filtration or size exclusion chromatography. In size exclusion chromatography, the stationary phase is a porous matrix made up of compounds like cross-linked polystyrene, cross-like dextrans, polyacrylamide gels, agarose gels, etc. The separation is based on the analyte molecular sizes since the gel behaves like a molecular sieve. This technique is used for …

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Gamma-ray (γ-ray) Spectroscopy

gamma-ray spectrometer

Gamma rays are an ultrahigh frequency of light that is emitted by radioactive elements, energetic celestial bodies such as black holes and neutron stars, and high energy events such as nuclear explosions and supernovae. Gamma-ray (γ-ray) spectroscopy is a quick and nondestructive analytical technique that can be used to identify various radioactive isotopes in a sample. A gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) is an …

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Solid State Fermentation (SSF)

Schematic of solid state fermenter for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to enzymes.

Solid State Fermentation (SSF) is a fermentation method used by several industries like the pharmaceuticals, food, textile etc., to produce metabolites of microorganisms using solid support in place of the liquid medium. It is defined as the growth of microbes without free-flowing aqueous phase. The SSF is alternative to submerged fermentation for production of value-added products like antibiotics, single cell protein, …

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X-Ray Spectroscopy- Principle, Instrumentation and Applications

X-Ray Spectroscopy

X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation. Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 0.01 to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (3×1016 Hz to 3×1019 Hz) and energies in the range 100 eV to 100 keV, produced by the deceleration of high-energy electrons. X-ray spectroscopy is a general term for several spectroscopic techniques for characterization of materials by using x-ray excitation. Source: University College Cork Principle of X-Ray Spectroscopy XRF works on methods involving …

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Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy

Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy

Infrared (IR) spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy is an analytical technique that takes advantage of the vibrational transitions of a molecule. It is one of the most common and widely used spectroscopic techniques employed mainly by inorganic and organic chemists due to its usefulness in determining structures of compounds and identifying them. The method or technique of infrared spectroscopy is conducted …

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Electron Spin Resonance (ESR)- Principle, Instrumentation, Applications

Electron Spin Resonance (ESR)

Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) also known as Electron Magnetic Resonance (EMR) or Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) is a branch of absorption spectroscopy in which radiations having frequency in the microwave region (0.04 – 25 cm) is absorbed by paramagnetic substances to induce transitions between magnetic energy levels of electrons with unpaired spins. ESR is based on the fact that atoms, …

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Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy or magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), is a spectroscopic technique to observe local magnetic fields around atomic nuclei.  It is a spectroscopy technique which is based on the absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the radio frequency region 4 to 900 MHz by nuclei of the atoms. Over the past fifty years, NMR has become the preeminent technique …

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UV Spectroscopy- Principle, Instrumentation, Applications

UV Spectroscopy

Spectroscopy is the measurement and interpretation of electromagnetic radiation absorbed or emitted when the molecules or atoms or ions of a sample moves from one energy state to another energy state. UV spectroscopy is type of absorption spectroscopy in which light of ultra-violet region (200-400 nm) is absorbed by the molecule which results in the excitation of the electrons from …

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Ion Exchange Chromatography

Ion Exchange Chromatography

Chromatography is the separation of a mixture of compounds into its individual components based on their relative interactions with an inert matrix. Ion exchange chromatography (or ion chromatography) is a process that allows the separation of ions and polar molecules based on their affinity to ion exchangers. The principle of separation is thus by reversible exchange of ions between the target ions present in …

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Column Chromatography

Column Chromatography

Chromatography is an important biophysical technique that enables the separation, identification, and purification of the components of a mixture for qualitative and quantitative analysis. It is a separation technique in which a mobile phase carrying a mixture is caused to move in contact with a selectively absorbent stationary phase. There are a number of different kinds of chromatography, which differ …

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