Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)- Types and Importance

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)- Types and Importance

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Both T and B cells use surface molecules to recognize antigen, they accomplish this in very different ways. In contrast to antibodies or B-cell receptors, which can recognize an antigen alone, T-cell receptors only recognize pieces of antigen that are positioned on the surface of other cells. These antigen pieces are … Read moreMajor Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)- Types and Importance

Macrophages- Introductions and Functions

Macrophages- Introductions and Functions

Macrophages The mononuclear phagocytic system consists of monocytes circulating in the blood and macrophages in the tissues. The monocyte is considered a leukocyte in transit through the blood, which becomes a macrophage when fixed in a tissue. Monocytes and macrophages as well as granulocytes are able to ingest particulate matter (microorganisms, cells, inert particles) and … Read moreMacrophages- Introductions and Functions

Cells of the immune system

Cells of the immune system

Cells of the immune system The cells that serve specialized roles in innate and adaptive immune responses are phagocytes, dendritic cells, antigen-specific lymphocytes, and various other leukocytes that function to eliminate antigens. Although most of these cells are found in the blood, their responses to microbes usually occur in lymphoid and other tissues. Phagocytes Phagocytes, … Read moreCells of the immune system

Monoclonal Antibodies- Types, Uses and Limitations

Monoclonal Antibodies- Types, Uses and Limitations

Monoclonal antibodies They are antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell. Monoclonal antibodies can have monovalent affinity, in that they bind to the same epitope. A technique to produce monoclonal antibodies was devised by Georges Kohler and Cesar Milstein in 1975. The method relies on … Read moreMonoclonal Antibodies- Types, Uses and Limitations

Introduction to Antigen

Introduction to Antigen

Antigens are specifically defined as molecules that interact specifically with immunoglobulin receptor of B-cell (or T-cell when complexed with MHC) or antigen is any substance that may be specifically bound by an antibody molecule or T cell receptor. Antigen is a substance which when introduced into living animal evokes specific immune response either by producing … Read moreIntroduction to Antigen

Western blotting- Introduction, Principle and Applications

Western blotting- Introduction, Principle and Applications

Introduction Western blot is the analytical technique used in molecular biology, immunogenetics and other molecular biology to detect specific proteins in a sample of tissue homogenate or extract. Western blotting is called so as the procedure is similar to Southern blotting. While Southern blotting is done to detect DNA, Western blotting is done for the … Read moreWestern blotting- Introduction, Principle and Applications

Indirect ELISA- Introduction, Steps, Advantages and Protocol

Indirect ELISA- Introduction, Steps, Advantages and Protocol

Introduction Indirect ELISA is a two-step ELISA which involves two binding process of primary antibody and labeled secondary antibody. The primary antibody is incubated with the antigen followed by the incubation with the secondary antibody. However, this may lead to nonspecific signals because of cross-reaction that the secondary antibody may cause. In the indirect ELISA test, the … Read moreIndirect ELISA- Introduction, Steps, Advantages and Protocol

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and its types

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) utilizes an enzyme system to show specific combination of an antigen with its antibody. It is a method of quantifying an antigen immobilized on a solid surface. ELISA uses a specific antibody with a covalently coupled enzyme. The amount of antibody that binds the antigen is proportional … Read moreEnzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

Neutralization Test- Introduction and Types

Neutralization Test- Introduction and Types

A neutralizing antibody defends a cell from an antigen or infectious body by inhibiting or neutralizing any biological effect. The antibody response is crucial for preventing many viral infections and may also contribute to the resolution of an infection. When a vertebrate is infected with a virus, antibodies are produced against many epitopes of multiple … Read moreNeutralization Test- Introduction and Types

Types of Agglutination Reactions

Antiglobulin (Coombs) test

Types of Agglutination Reactions Agglutination reactions can be broadly divided into three groups: Active/Direct agglutination Passive agglutination Hemagglutination 1. Active agglutination Agglutination reactions where the antigens are found naturally on a particle are known as direct agglutination. In active agglutination, direct agglutination of particulate antigen with specific antibody occurs. Direct bacterial agglutination uses whole pathogens … Read moreTypes of Agglutination Reactions