Buffer and Extraction Buffer

Buffer and Extraction Buffer

Buffer and Extraction Buffer A buffer is an aqueous solution consisting of a mixture of a weak acid and its salt (acidic buffer) or a weak base and its salt (basic buffer) that resists a change in pH on the addition of either acid or base. Its pH changes very little when a small amount … Read moreBuffer and Extraction Buffer

Water Soluble Vitamins- B-Complex and C

Water Soluble Vitamins- B-Complex and C

Water Soluble Vitamins- B-Complex and C Vitamins refer to any of a group of organic compounds which are essential for normal growth and nutrition and are required in small quantities in the diet. Vitamins are biologically important. Although a micronutrient, it enhances the metabolism of macronutrients like proteins, carbohydrates and fats. Vitamins are also required … Read moreWater Soluble Vitamins- B-Complex and C

Fructose Metabolism

Fructose Metabolism

Fructose Metabolism Fructose is an abundant sugar in the human diet. This dietary monosaccharide is present naturally in fruits and vegetables, either as free fructose or as part of the disaccharide sucrose, and as its polymer inulin. Sucrose (table sugar) is a disaccharide which when hydrolyzed yields fructose and glucose. The metabolism of fructose from dietary sources is referred to as fructolysis. Location of Fructose Metabolism Fructose metabolism takes … Read moreFructose Metabolism

Fatty Acid Synthesis

Fatty Acid Synthesis

Fatty Acid Synthesis Lipogenesis, the synthesis of fatty acids and their esterification to glycerol to form triacylglycerols, which occurs mainly in the liver in humans, with dietary carbohydrate as the major source of carbon. While the de novo synthesis of fatty acids from acetyl-CoA occurs in the cytosol on the fatty acid synthase complex. Fatty … Read moreFatty Acid Synthesis

Uronic Acid Pathway

URONIC ACID PATHWAY

Uronic Acid Pathway Uronic acids are a class of sugar acids with both carbonyl and carboxylic acid functional groups. They are sugars in which the terminal carbon’s hydroxyl group has been oxidized to a carboxylic acid. Oxidation of the terminal aldehyde instead yields an aldonic acid, while oxidation of both the terminal hydroxyl group and the aldehyde yields an aldaric acid. The names of uronic acids … Read moreUronic Acid Pathway

Nitrogen Cycle- Steps and Significance

Nitrogen Cycle- Steps and Significance

Nitrogen Cycle- Steps and Significance The movement of nitrogen between the atmosphere, biosphere, and geosphere in different forms is called the nitrogen cycle and is one of the major biogeochemical cycles.  It may also be considered as the movement of nitrogen through the food chain from simple inorganic compounds, mainly ammonia, to complex organic compounds. This complex cycle involves bacteria, plants and … Read moreNitrogen Cycle- Steps and Significance

Oxidative Phosphorylation

Oxidative Phosphorylation and ETC

Oxidative Phosphorylation The NADH and FADH2, formed during glycolysis, β-oxidation of fatty acids and the TCA cycle, give up their electrons to reduce molecular O2 to H2O. Electron transfer occurs through a series of protein electron carriers, the final acceptor being O2; the pathway called as the electron transport chain (ETC). The function of ETC … Read moreOxidative Phosphorylation

Beta-oxidation of Fatty Acid

Beta-oxidation of Fatty Acid

Beta-oxidation of Fatty Acid Beta-oxidation is the catabolic process by which fatty acid molecules are broken down in the cytosol in prokaryotes and in the mitochondria in eukaryotes to generate acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA enters the citric acid cycle while NADH and FADH2, which are co-enzymes, are used in the electron transport chain. It is referred as “beta oxidation” because the beta carbon of the fatty acid undergoes oxidation to a carbonyl group. Figure: Schematic demonstrating … Read moreBeta-oxidation of Fatty Acid

Fat soluble vitamins- Vitamin A, D, E and K

Fat soluble vitamins- Vitamin A, D, E and K

Fat soluble vitamins- Vitamin A, D, E and K Vitamins refer to any of a group of organic compounds which are essential for normal growth and nutrition and are required in small quantities in the diet. Vitamins are biologically important. Although a micronutrient, it enhances the metabolism of macronutrients like proteins, carbohydrates and fats. Vitamins … Read moreFat soluble vitamins- Vitamin A, D, E and K

Enzymes- Properties, Classification and Significance

Enzymes- Properties, Classification and Significance

Enzymes- Properties, Classification and Significance Enzymes are the biological macromolecules which speed up the rate of biochemical reactions without undergoing any change. They are also called as biological catalysts. An enzyme is a highly selective catalyst that greatly accelerates both the rate and specificity of metabolic reactions. Properties of Enzymes Nearly all enzymes are proteins, although … Read moreEnzymes- Properties, Classification and Significance