Purine Synthesis

Purine Synthesis

Purine Synthesis There are two pathways of synthesis of purine nucleotides: De Novo synthesis pathway, and Salvage pathway. The De novo synthesis of Purine The de novo synthesis of purine nucleotide means using phosphoribose , amino acids , one carbon units and CO2 as raw materials to synthesize purine nucleotide from the beginning. It is … Read morePurine Synthesis

Cholesterol Synthesis

Cholesterol Synthesis

Cholesterol Synthesis Although cholesterol is synthesized in most tissues of the body where it serves as a component of cell membranes, it is produced mainly in the liver and intestine. Cholesterol and cholesterol esters are transported in blood lipoproteins. All the carbons of cholesterol are derived from acetyl-CoA. The key intermediates in cholesterol biosynthesis are … Read moreCholesterol Synthesis

Pentose Phosphate Pathway

Pentose Phosphate Pathway

Pentose Phosphate Pathway The pentose phosphate pathway is a metabolic pathway parallel to glycolysis which generates NADPH and pentoses (5-carbon sugars) as well as ribose 5-phosphate. The pentose phosphate pathway is also called as the phosphogluconate pathway or hexose monophosphate shunt. While it involves oxidation of glucose, its primary role is anabolic rather than catabolic.  It is an important pathway that generates precursors for nucleotide synthesis andis especially important in red blood cells (erythrocytes). Location Cytoplasm of … Read morePentose Phosphate Pathway

Urea Cycle- Enzymes and Steps

Urea Cycle- Enzymes and Steps

Urea Cycle- Enzymes and Steps The urea cycle is the metabolic pathway that transforms nitrogen to urea for excretion from the body. Nitrogenous excretory products are removed from the body mainly in the urine. Ammonia, which is very toxic in humans, is converted to urea, which is nontoxic, very soluble, and readily excreted by the … Read moreUrea Cycle- Enzymes and Steps

Lipids- Properties, Structure, Classification and Functions

Lipids- Properties, Structure, Classification and Functions

Lipids- Properties, Structure, Classification and Functions Lipids are a heterogeneous group of organic compounds that are insolub­le in water and soluble in non-polar organic solvents. They naturally occur in most plants, animals, microorganisms and are used as cell membrane components, energy storage molecules, insulation, and hormones. Properties of Lipids Lipids may be either liquids or … Read moreLipids- Properties, Structure, Classification and Functions

Gluconeogenesis- Steps, Reactions and Significance

Gluconeogenesis- Steps, Reactions and Significance

Gluconeogenesis- Steps, Reactions and Significance Gluconeogenesis is the production of glucose from non-sugar precursors. Gluconeogenesis, mainly occurs in the liver, and involves the synthesis of glucose from compounds that are not carbohydrates. When a cell is growing on a hexose such as glucose, and obtaining glucose for polysaccharide synthesis, there is no problem. But when … Read moreGluconeogenesis- Steps, Reactions and Significance

Amino Acids- Properties, Structure, Classification and Functions

Amino Acids- Properties, Structure, Classification and Functions

Amino Acids- Properties, Structure, Classification and Functions Amino acids constitute a group of neutral products clearly distinguished from other natural compounds chemically, mainly because of their ampholytic properties, and biochemically, mainly because of their role as protein constituents. An amino acid is a carboxylic acid containing an aliphatic primary amino group in the α position … Read moreAmino Acids- Properties, Structure, Classification and Functions

Nucleic Acids- Nucleosides and Nucleotides

Nucleosides and Nucleotides

Nucleic Acids- Nucleosides and Nucleotides Nucleotide is any member of the class of organic compounds in which the molecular structure comprises a nitrogen-containing unit (base) linked to a sugar and a phosphate group.  They are monomeric units of nucleic acids and also serve as sources of chemical energy (ATP, GTP), participate in cellular signalling (cAMP, cGMP) and function as … Read moreNucleic Acids- Nucleosides and Nucleotides

Electron Transport Chain (ETC)- Components and Steps

Electron Transport Chain (ETC)- Components and Steps

Electron Transport Chain (ETC)- Components and Steps The NADH and FADH2 formed in glycolysis, TCA cycle and fatty acid oxidation are energy rich molecules because they contain a pair of electrons that have high transfer potential. ATP is generated as a result of the energy produced when electrons from NADH and FADH2 are passed to … Read moreElectron Transport Chain (ETC)- Components and Steps

TCA Cycle (Citric acid cycle or Krebs cycle)

Krebs cycle

TCA Cycle (Citric acid cycle or Krebs cycle) The tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle), also known as the citric acid cycle or the Krebs cycle, is a major energy-producing pathway in living bodies. Cells obtain ATP from breakdown of glucose in the absence of oxygen as in glycolysis. However, most organisms normally are aerobic and … Read moreTCA Cycle (Citric acid cycle or Krebs cycle)