Pyruvate Broth Test

Pyruvate Broth Test

Objectives of Pyruvate Broth Test To determine the ability of an organism to utilize pyruvate. It aids in the differentiation between Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Principle of Pyruvate Broth Test In the identification of microorganisms, the widely used method is the … Read more

Leucine Amino Peptidase (LAP) Test

Leucine Amino Peptidase (LAP) Test

Leucine Amino Peptidase (LAP) Test Objective To detect the presence of the enzyme leucine aminopeptidase for the preliminary characterization of catalase-negative, gram-positive cocci, especially non-beta-hemolytic cocci. Principle of Leucine Amino Peptidase (LAP) Test Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) test is a rapid … Read more

Sulfur Reduction Test

Sulfur Reduction Test

Objectives To determine the ability of the organism to reduce sulfur for the production of hydrogen sulfide. To differentiate members of Enterobacteriaceae, especially the sulfur-reducing Salmonella and Proteus from the non-reducing Morganella morganii and Providencia rettgeri. Principle The Sulfur Reduction … Read more

Salt Tolerance Test

Salt Tolerance Test

Objectives To determine the ability of an organism to grow in high concentrations of salt. It is used for the differentiation of Enterococci from Non-Enterococci. Principle Salt acts as a selective agent and interferes with membrane permeability and osmotic equilibrium. … Read more

Kligler Iron Agar Test

Kligler Iron Agar Test

Objective To differentiate the enteric gram-negative bacilli based on the production of hydrogen sulfide and fermentation of dextrose and lactose. Principle Kligler Iron Agar (KIA) test is used in differentiating certain members of the Enterobacteriaceae by demonstrating hydrogen sulfide production … Read more

Potassium hydroxide (KOH) test

Potassium hydroxide (KOH) test

Objective To visualize the fungal element in the clinical specimens. To examine skin scrapings or flakes and hair for the presence of hyphae and arthroconidia in suspected dermatophyte infections. Principle Potassium hydroxide (KOH) can be used on clinical specimens to … Read more

Nitrite Reduction Test

Nitrite Reduction Test

Objective To determine the ability of an organism to reduce nitrites to gaseous nitrogen or to other compounds containing nitrogen. Principle Nitrate reduction by bacteria is mediated by nitrate reductase and indicates that the organism can use NO3– as an electron … Read more

Phenylalanine Deaminase Test

Result Interpretation of Phenylalanine Deaminase Test

Objectives of Phenylalanine Deaminase Test To determine the ability of an organism to oxidatively deaminate phenylalanine to phenylpyruvic acid. To differentiate enteric Gram-nega­tive bacilli on the basis of their ability to produce phenylpyruvic acid from phenylalanine. Principle of Phenylalanine Deaminase Test Phenylalanine … Read more

Triple Sugar Iron Agar (TSIA) Test

Result Interpretation of TSIA Test

Objectives of TSIA Test To determine whether a gram negative bacilli ferments glucose and lactose or sucrose and forms hydrogen sulfide (H2S). To differentiate members of the Enterobacteriaceae family from other gram-negative rods. Principle of TSIA Test The Triple Sugar … Read more

Casein Hydrolysis Test

Result of Casein Hydrolysis Test

Objectives of Casein Hydrolysis Test To determine the ability of the organism to degrade the casein protein. To differentiate the organism on the basis of production of exoenzyme proteinase (caseinase) Principle of Casein Hydrolysis Test Casein is a macromolecule composed of amino … Read more

Voges Proskauer (VP) Test

Result Interpretation of VP Test

Objective of VP Test To differentiate two major types of facultative anaerobic enteric bacteria based on production of neutral products. Principle of VP Test Voges Proskauer test, commonly known as VP test is used to determine the ability of some organisms … Read more

L-Pyrrolidonyl Arylamidase (PYR) Test

Result Interpretation of PYR Test

Objectives of PYR Test To determine the ability of organism to produce L-pyrrolidonyl arylamidase enzyme. It aids in the presumptive identification of group A streptococci (Streptococcus pyogenes) and Enterococci by the presence of the enzyme L-pyrrolidonyl arylamidase. Principle of PYR Test … Read more