Carbohydrates- definition, structure, types, examples, functions

Classification of Carbohydrates

What are carbohydrates? The carbohydrates are a group of naturally occurring carbonyl compounds (aldehydes or ketones) that also contain several hydroxyl groups. It may also include their derivatives which produce such compounds on hydrolysis. They are the most abundant organic molecules in nature and also referred to as “saccharides”. The carbohydrates which are soluble in … Read more Carbohydrates- definition, structure, types, examples, functions

Glycolysis- Steps, ATP generation and Significance

Glycolysis- Steps, ATP generation and Significance

Glycolysis- Steps, ATP generation and Significance Fermentation and respiration are two major strategies for energy conservation in chemoorganotrophs. The glycolytic pathway is a major metabolic pathway for microbial fermentation which involves the catabolism of glucose into pyruvate. It is also called the Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas pathway for its major discoverers. Regardless of whether glucose is fermented or … Read more Glycolysis- Steps, ATP generation and Significance

Difference between exotoxins and endotoxins (exotoxins vs endotoxins)

Differences between Exotoxins and Endotoxins

Differences between Exotoxins and Endotoxins Toxins are small molecules, peptides, or proteins produced by living cells that are capable of causing diseases or structural damage when they come in contact or are absorbed by tissues. Toxins and enzymes play an important role in the pathogenicity of pathogenic bacteria. Toxins may aid in invasiveness, damage cells, inhibit … Read more Difference between exotoxins and endotoxins (exotoxins vs endotoxins)

Protein Structure- Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary

Protein Structure- Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary

Four levels of hierarchy in protein conformation can be described. A. PRIMARY STRUCTURE PRIMARY STRUCTURE refers to the order of the amino acids in the peptide chain. 1. The free α-amino group, written to the left, is called the amino-terminal or N-terminal end. 2. The free α-carboxyl group, written to the right, is called the … Read more Protein Structure- Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary