Nucleic Acids- Nucleosides and Nucleotides

Nucleosides and Nucleotides

Nucleic Acids- Nucleosides and Nucleotides Nucleotide is any member of the class of organic compounds in which the molecular structure comprises a nitrogen-containing unit (base) linked to a sugar and a phosphate group.  They are monomeric units of nucleic acids and also serve as sources of chemical energy (ATP, GTP), participate in cellular signalling (cAMP, cGMP) and function as … Read more Nucleic Acids- Nucleosides and Nucleotides

Electron Transport Chain (ETC)- Components and Steps

Electron Transport Chain (ETC)- Components and Steps

Electron Transport Chain (ETC)- Components and Steps The NADH and FADH2 formed in glycolysis, TCA cycle and fatty acid oxidation are energy rich molecules because they contain a pair of electrons that have high transfer potential. ATP is generated as a result of the energy produced when electrons from NADH and FADH2 are passed to … Read more Electron Transport Chain (ETC)- Components and Steps

TCA Cycle (Citric acid cycle or Krebs cycle)

Krebs cycle

TCA Cycle (Citric acid cycle or Krebs cycle) The tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle), also known as the citric acid cycle or the Krebs cycle, is a major energy-producing pathway in living bodies. Cells obtain ATP from breakdown of glucose in the absence of oxygen as in glycolysis. However, most organisms normally are aerobic and … Read more TCA Cycle (Citric acid cycle or Krebs cycle)

Proteins- Properties, Structure, Classification and Functions

Proteins- Properties, Structure, Classification and Functions

Proteins- Properties, Structure, Classification and Functions Proteins are the most abundant biological macromolecules, occurring in all cells. It is also the most versatile organic molecule of the living systems and occur in great variety; thousands of different kinds, ranging in size from relatively small peptides to large polymers. Proteins are the polymers of amino acids … Read more Proteins- Properties, Structure, Classification and Functions

Carbohydrates- Structure, Properties, Classification and Functions

Classification of Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates- Structure, Properties, Classification and Functions The carbohydrates are a group of naturally occurring carbonyl compounds (aldehydes or ketones) that also contain several hydroxyl groups. It may also include their derivatives which produce such compounds on hydrolysis. They are the most abundant organic molecules in nature and also referred to as “saccharides”. The carbohydrates which … Read more Carbohydrates- Structure, Properties, Classification and Functions

Glycolysis- Steps, ATP generation and Significance

Glycolysis- Steps, ATP generation and Significance

Glycolysis- Steps, ATP generation and Significance Fermentation and respiration are two major strategies for energy conservation in chemoorganotrophs. The glycolytic pathway is a major metabolic pathway for microbial fermentation which involves the catabolism of glucose into pyruvate. It is also called the Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas pathway for its major discoverers. Regardless of whether glucose is fermented or … Read more Glycolysis- Steps, ATP generation and Significance

Differences between Exotoxins and Endotoxins

Differences between Exotoxins and Endotoxins

Differences between Exotoxins and Endotoxins Toxins are small molecules, peptides, or proteins produced by living cells that are capable of causing diseases or structural damage when they come in contact or are absorbed by tissues. Toxins and enzymes play an important role in the pathogenicity of pathogenic bacteria. Toxins may aid in invasiveness, damage cells, inhibit … Read more Differences between Exotoxins and Endotoxins

Protein Structure- Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary

Protein Structure- Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary

Four levels of hierarchy in protein conformation can be described. A. PRIMARY STRUCTURE PRIMARY STRUCTURE refers to the order of the amino acids in the peptide chain. 1. The free α-amino group, written to the left, is called the amino-terminal or N-terminal end. 2. The free α-carboxyl group, written to the right, is called the … Read more Protein Structure- Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary