Post Translational Modification

Post Translational Modification

Post translational modifications refer to any alteration in the amino acid sequence of the protein after its synthesis. It may involve the modification of the amino acid side chain, terminal amino or carboxyl group by means of covalent or enzymatic means following protein biosynthesis. Generally, these modifications influence the structure, stability, activity, cellular localization or substrate specificity of the protein. Post translational …

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DNA Sequencing- Maxam–Gilbert and Sanger Dideoxy Method

Sanger Dideoxy Method

DNA sequencing refers to methods for determining the order of the nucleotides bases adenine,guanine,cytosine and thymine in a molecule of DNA. The first DNA sequence was obtained by academic researchers, using laboratories methods based on 2- dimensional chromatography in the early 1970s. By the development of dye based sequencing method with automated analysis, DNA sequencing has become easier and faster. …

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Lac operon- definition, structure, Inducers, diagram

Lac Operon

Lac operon definition The lactose or lac operon of Escherichia coli is a cluster of three structural genes encoding proteins involved in lactose metabolism and the sites on the DNA involved in the regulation of the operon. Many protein-coding genes in bacteria are clustered together in operons which serve as transcriptional units that are coordinately regulated. It was Jacob and Monod …

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Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)- Principle, Steps, Applications

PCR

PCR is an enzymatic process in which a specific region of DNA is replicated over and over again to yield many copies of a particular sequence. The most widely used target nucleic acid amplification method is the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This method combines the principles of complementary nucleic acid hybridization with those of nucleic acid replication applied repeatedly through …

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Prokaryotic Transcription- Enzymes, Steps, Significance

Prokaryotic Transcription- Enzymes, Steps, Significance

Transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is copied into a new molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA). In prokaryotic organisms transcription occurs in three phases known as initiation, elongation and termination. Enzyme(s) Involved RNA is synthesized by a single RNA polymerase enzyme which contains multiple polypeptide subunits. In E. coli, the RNA polymerase has subunits: two …

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Prokaryotic Translation (Protein Synthesis)

Prokaryotic Translation (Protein Synthesis)

Translation involves translating the sequence of a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule to a sequence of amino acids during protein synthesis. It is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA. The Ribosomes Ribosomes exist normally as separate subunits that are composed of protein and rRNA. The subunits come together to form a ribosome when they bind to an mRNA, near …

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RNA- Properties, Structure, Types and Functions

RNA- Properties, Structure, Types and Functions

RNA or ribonucleic acid is a polymer of nucleotides which is made up of a ribose sugar, a phosphate, and bases such as adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil. It is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes. Figure: (a) Ribonucleotides contain the pentose sugar ribose instead of the deoxyribose found in deoxyribonucleotides. (b) RNA contains the pyrimidine uracil in place …

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Prokaryotic DNA Replication- Enzymes, Steps and Significance

Steps of DNA Replication

DNA replication is the process by which an organism duplicates its DNA into another copy that is passed on to daughter cells. Replication occurs before a cell divides to ensure that both cells receive an exact copy of the parent’s genetic material.  DNA replication uses a semi-conservative method that results in a double-stranded DNA with one parental strand and a new …

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23 Differences between DNA Replication and Transcription

Differences between DNA Replication and Transcription

DNA replication and transcription are fundamental genetic processes that are essential for cell growth and division.  Both DNA replication and transcription processes involve the generation of a new molecule of nucleic acids, either DNA or RNA; however, the function of each process is very different, with one involved in gene expression and the other involved in cell division. Here are …

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