The Wobble Hypothesis

The Wobble Hypothesis

The Wobble Hypothesis There are more than one codon for one amino acid. This is called degeneracy of genetic code. To explain the possible cause of degeneracy of codons, in 1966, Francis Crick proposed “the Wobble hypothesis”. According to this hypothesis, only the first two bases of the codon have a precise pairing with the … Read more The Wobble Hypothesis

Cloning Vectors

Cloning Vectors

Cloning Vectors Genetic vectors are vehicles for delivering foreign DNA into recipient cells. In molecular cloning, a vector is a DNA molecule used as a vehicle to artificially carry foreign genetic material into another cell, where it can be replicated and/or expressed. Vectors can replicate autonomously and typically include features to facilitate the manipulation of DNA as well as a genetic … Read more Cloning Vectors

Restriction Enzyme (Restriction Endonuclease)

Restriction Enzyme (Restriction Endonuclease)

Restriction Enzyme (Restriction Endonuclease) Definition Restriction enzyme, also called restriction endonuclease, is a protein produced by bacteria that cleaves DNA at specific sites along the molecule. Restriction endonucleases cut the DNA double helix in very precise ways. It cleaves DNA into fragments at or near specific recognition sites within the molecule known as restriction sites. They have the capacity to recognize specific … Read more Restriction Enzyme (Restriction Endonuclease)

Central Dogma- Replication, Transcription, Translation

Central Dogma- Replication, Transcription, Translation

Central Dogma- Replication, Transcription, Translation DNA contains the complete genetic information that defines the structure and function of an organism. Proteins are formed using the genetic code of the DNA. Conversion of DNA encoded information to RNA is essential to form proteins. Thus, within most cells, the genetic information flows from – DNA to RNA to protein. … Read more Central Dogma- Replication, Transcription, Translation

DNA Microarray

Steps Involved in cDNA based Microarray

DNA microarrays are solid supports, usually of glass or silicon, upon which DNA is attached in an organized pre-determined grid fashion. Each spot of DNA, called a probe, represents a single gene. DNA microarrays can analyze the expression of tens of thousands of genes simultaneously. There are several synonyms of DNA microarrays such as DNA … Read more DNA Microarray

Gene Cloning- Requirements, Principle, Steps, Applications

Gene Cloning- Requirements, Principle, Steps, Applications

Gene Cloning- Requirements, Principle, Steps, Applications The production of exact copies of a particular gene or DNA sequence using genetic engineering techniques is called gene cloning. The term “gene cloning,” “DNA cloning,” “molecular cloning,” and “recombinant DNA technology” all refer to same technique. When DNA is extracted from an organism, all its genes are obtained. In gene … Read more Gene Cloning- Requirements, Principle, Steps, Applications

Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)

Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)

Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is a powerful platform that has enabled the sequencing of thousands to millions of DNA molecules simultaneously. Next-generation sequencing (NGS), also known as high-throughput sequencing, is the catch-all term used to describe a number of different modern sequencing technologies. The high demand for low-cost sequencing has driven … Read more Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)

DNA Fingerprinting- Principle, Methods, Applications

DNA Fingerprinting- Principle, Methods, Applications

DNA Fingerprinting- Principle, Methods, Applications DNA fingerprinting or DNA profiling is a process used to determine the nucleotide sequence at a certain part of the DNA that is unique in all human beings.  The process of DNA fingerprinting was invented by Sir Alec Jeffrey at the University of Leicester in 1985. Principle of DNA Fingerprinting … Read more DNA Fingerprinting- Principle, Methods, Applications

Tryptophan (Trp) Operon

Trp Operon Structure

Tryptophan (Trp) Operon Many protein-coding genes in bacteria are clustered together in operons which serve as transcriptional units that are coordinately regulated. It was Jacob and Monod in 1961 who proposed the operon model for the regulation of transcription. The operon model proposes three elements: A set of structural genes (i.e. genes encoding the proteins … Read more Tryptophan (Trp) Operon

Post Translational Modification

Post Translational Modification

Post Translational Modification Post translational modifications refer to any alteration in the amino acid sequence of the protein after its synthesis. It may involve the modification of the amino acid side chain, terminal amino or carboxyl group by means of covalent or enzymatic means following protein biosynthesis. Generally, these modifications influence the structure, stability, activity, cellular localization … Read more Post Translational Modification