DNA Fingerprinting- Principle, Methods, Applications

DNA Fingerprinting- Principle, Methods, Applications

DNA Fingerprinting- Principle, Methods, Applications DNA fingerprinting or DNA profiling is a process used to determine the nucleotide sequence at a certain part of the DNA that is unique in all human beings.  The process of DNA fingerprinting was invented by Sir Alec Jeffrey at the University of Leicester in 1985. Principle of DNA Fingerprinting … Read moreDNA Fingerprinting- Principle, Methods, Applications

Tryptophan (Trp) Operon

Trp Operon Structure

Tryptophan (Trp) Operon Many protein-coding genes in bacteria are clustered together in operons which serve as transcriptional units that are coordinately regulated. It was Jacob and Monod in 1961 who proposed the operon model for the regulation of transcription. The operon model proposes three elements: A set of structural genes (i.e. genes encoding the proteins … Read moreTryptophan (Trp) Operon

Post Translational Modification

Post Translational Modification

Post Translational Modification Post translational modifications refer to any alteration in the amino acid sequence of the protein after its synthesis. It may involve the modification of the amino acid side chain, terminal amino or carboxyl group by means of covalent or enzymatic means following protein biosynthesis. Generally, these modifications influence the structure, stability, activity, cellular localization … Read morePost Translational Modification

DNA Sequencing- Maxam–Gilbert and Sanger Dideoxy Method

Sanger Dideoxy Method

DNA Sequencing- Maxam–Gilbert and Sanger Dideoxy Method DNA sequencing refers to methods for determining the order of the nucleotides bases adenine,guanine,cytosine and thymine in a molecule of DNA. The first DNA sequence was obtained by academic researchers, using laboratories methods based on 2- dimensional chromatography in the early 1970s. By the development of dye based sequencing … Read moreDNA Sequencing- Maxam–Gilbert and Sanger Dideoxy Method

Lac Operon

Lac Operon

Lac Operon The lactose or lac operon of Escherichia coli is a cluster of three structural genes encoding proteins involved in lactose metabolism and the sites on the DNA involved in regulation of the operon. Many protein-coding genes in bacteria are clustered together in operons which serve as transcriptional units that are coordinately regulated. It … Read moreLac Operon

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)- Principle, Steps, Applications

PCR

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)- Principle, Steps, Applications PCR is an enzymatic process in which a specific region of DNA is replicated over and over again to yield many copies of a particular sequence. The most widely used target nucleic acid amplification method is the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This method combines the principles of complementary … Read morePolymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)- Principle, Steps, Applications

Prokaryotic Transcription- Enzymes, Steps, Significance

Prokaryotic Transcription- Enzymes, Steps, Significance

Prokaryotic Transcription- Enzymes, Steps, Significance Transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is copied into a new molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA). In prokaryotic organisms transcription occurs in three phases known as initiation, elongation and termination. Enzyme(s) Involved RNA is synthesized by a single RNA polymerase enzyme which contains multiple … Read moreProkaryotic Transcription- Enzymes, Steps, Significance

Prokaryotic Translation (Protein Synthesis)

Prokaryotic Translation (Protein Synthesis)

Prokaryotic Translation (Protein Synthesis) Translation involves translating the sequence of a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule to a sequence of amino acids during protein synthesis. It is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA. The Ribosomes Ribosomes exist normally as separate subunits that are composed of protein and rRNA. The subunits come together to form … Read moreProkaryotic Translation (Protein Synthesis)

RNA- Properties, Structure, Types and Functions

RNA- Properties, Structure, Types and Functions

RNA- Properties, Structure, Types and Functions RNA or ribonucleic acid is a polymer of nucleotides which is made up of a ribose sugar, a phosphate, and bases such as adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil. It is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes. Figure: (a) Ribonucleotides contain the pentose sugar ribose instead of the deoxyribose … Read moreRNA- Properties, Structure, Types and Functions

Characteristic of Genetic Code

Characteristic of Genetic Code

Characteristic of Genetic Code The genetic code is the set of rules by which a linear sequence of nucleotides specifies the linear sequence of a polypeptide. That is, they specify how the nucleotide sequence of an mRNA is translated into the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide. Thus, the relationship between the nucleotide sequence of … Read moreCharacteristic of Genetic Code