Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC)

Stages of pathogenesis of EAEC

Enteroaggregative E.  coli (EAEC) are a heterogeneous collection of strains characterized by their autoagglutination in a “stacked-brick” arrangement over the epithelium of the small intestine and, in some cases, the colon. EAEC strains are currently defined as  E. coli strains that do … Read more

E. coli Pathotypes- ETEC, EPEC, EHEC, EAEC, EIEC, DAEC

E. coli Pathotypes

Escherichia coli (commonly abbreviated E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms). Human Escherichia coli strains are classified as commensal microbiota E. coli, enterovirulent E. coli, and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) on … Read more

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

Urinary Tract Infection

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract. The urinary system is made up of the kidneys, ureters, the urinary bladder, and the urethra. Most UTIs are restricted to infection of the bladder (cystitis), though infection may occur … Read more

32 Differences between Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Differences between Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, are obligate human pathogens that cause distinctly different disease syndromes. They are both Gram negative diplococci, non-sporing, oxidase positive and difficult to differentiate on morphological and cultural characteristics. However, they can be differentiated on the following grounds: S.N. … Read more

Habitat and Morphology of Acinetobacter baumannii

Habitat and Morphology of Acinetobacter baumannii

Habitat of Acinetobacter baumannii The first Acinetobacter found in soil was discovered in 1911 by M.W. Beijerinck. It is associated with aquatics environment. It has been recovered from soil, water, animals, and humans. Found in the respiratory and oropharynx secretions of … Read more

Flagella and Pili (Fimbriae)

Flagella and Pili (Fimbriae)

Flagella Flagella are protein filaments that extend like long tails from the cell membranes of certain gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. These tails, which are several times the length of the bacterial cell, move the bacteria around. Source: Wikipedia The flagellum … Read more

Aerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Gram-Positive Cocci

Aerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Gram-Positive Cocci

Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium Clinical Features Urinary tract infections, peritonitis, bacteremia, endocarditis Virulence Factors Relatively avirulent Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Features Suppurative infections: impetigo, folliculitis, furuncles, carbuncles, wounds Disseminated infections: bacteremia, endocarditis, pneumonia, empyema, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis Toxin-mediated infections: toxic … Read more