Isolation of Actinomycetes from Soil sample

Procedure of Isolation of Actinomycetes

Isolation of Actinomycetes from Soil sample Actinomycetes are classified as a group of gram-positive bacteria that are unique for their spore forming abilities and formation of mycelia structures. They show marked chemical and morphological diversity but form a distinct evolutionary line of organisms that range from coccoid and pleomorphic forms to branched filaments. These bacteria … Read moreIsolation of Actinomycetes from Soil sample

Isolation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) from Soil sample

Isolation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) from Soil sample

Protocol: Isolation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) from Soil sample Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is an ubiquitous, Gram-positive and sporulating bacterium that synthesizes insecticidal proteins with specificity against a wide range of insects during sporulation (Cry and Cyt) and vegetative growth (Vip and Sip). These proteins have portrayed Bt as an environment-friendly alternative to chemical insecticides. Principle of Isolation … Read moreIsolation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) from Soil sample

Bacterial Growth Curve Protocol

Bacterial Growth Curve

Bacterial Growth Curve Protocol When fresh liquid medium is inoculated with a given number of bacteria and incubated for sufficient period of time, it gives a characteristic growth pattern of bacteria. If the bacterial population is measured periodically and log of number of viable bacteria is plotted in a graph against time, it gives a … Read moreBacterial Growth Curve Protocol

Phase-contrast Microscopy

Phase-contrast Microscopy

Phase-contrast Microscopy Unstained living cells absorb practically no light. Poor light absorption results in extremely small differences in the intensity distribution in the image. This makes the cells barely, or not at all, visible in a brightfield microscope. Phase-contrast microscopy is an optical microscopy technique that converts phase shifts in light passing through a transparent specimen to brightness changes in … Read morePhase-contrast Microscopy

Fluorescence Microscope- Principle, Instrumentation, Applications, Advantages, Limitations

Fluorescence Microscope

Fluorescence Microscope- Principle, Instrumentation, Applications, Advantages, Limitations A fluorescence microscope is an optical microscope that uses fluorescence and phosphorescence instead of, or in addition to, reflection and absorption to study properties of organic or inorganic substances. Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation while phosphorescence … Read moreFluorescence Microscope- Principle, Instrumentation, Applications, Advantages, Limitations

Compound Microscope- Principle, Instrumentation and Applications

Compound Microscope

Compound Microscope- Principle, Instrumentation and Applications The term microscope can be split into two separate words, ‘micro’ and ‘scope’, where the term ‘micro’ means small or tiny, and ‘scope’ means to view or to observe. Therefore, a microscope can be understood as an instrument to observe tiny elements. The optical microscope, often referred to as the light microscope, is a type of microscope that uses visible light and … Read moreCompound Microscope- Principle, Instrumentation and Applications

Electron Microscope- Principle, Types, Components, Applications, Advantages, Limitations

Electron Microscope

Electron Microscope- Principle, Types, Components, Applications, Advantages, Limitations An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination. It is a special type of microscope having a high resolution of images, able to magnify objects in nanometres, which are formed by controlled use of electrons in vacuum captured on a phosphorescent … Read moreElectron Microscope- Principle, Types, Components, Applications, Advantages, Limitations

Simple Microscope- Principle, Instrumentation and Applications

Simple Microscope- Principle, Instrumentation and Applications

Simple Microscope- Principle, Instrumentation and Applications The optical microscope, often referred to as the light microscope, is a type of microscope that uses visible light and a system of lenses to magnify images of small subjects. There are two basic types of optical microscopes: Simple microscopes Compound microscopes. Simple Microscope A simple microscope is one which uses a single lens for magnification, such … Read moreSimple Microscope- Principle, Instrumentation and Applications

Differences between cilia and flagella

Differences between cilia and flagella

Differences between cilia and flagella Cilia and flagella are cytoplasmic processes extending from the cell surface. The cell organelles are similar but are differentiated based on their size, number, function and/or mode of beating. S.N. Character Cilia Flagella 1.       Definition Cilia are short, hair like appendages extending from the surface of a living cell. Flagella are long, threadlike appendages … Read moreDifferences between cilia and flagella

Differences between O Antigen and H Antigen

Differences between O Antigen and H Antigen

Differences between O Antigen and H Antigen The surface structures of bacteria have considerable antigenic heterogeneity. Often these antigens are used as part of a serologic classification system for the bacteria. The classification of the 2000 or so different Salmonellae is based principally on the types of the O (LPS side chain) and H (flagellar) … Read moreDifferences between O Antigen and H Antigen