Top and Best Biology Websites or Blogs for Study Notes

Top and Best Biology Websites or Blogs

Note: Since Alexa ranking is updated daily, there might be some changes in ranking and position. We update the website/blog rank only once or twice a month. If your website/blog is not listed below or we missed it, you can email your website/blog URL to microbenotes(at)gmail(dot)com and we will update it on this page. These are the top and best biology …

Read more

Oxidase Test- Principle, Procedure and Results

Oxidase Test

Objective of Oxidase Test To determine the ability of the organism to produce the cytochrome oxidase enzyme. Principle of Oxidase Test The oxidase test is designed for specifically detecting the presence of the terminal enzyme system in aerobic respiration called cytochrome C oxidase or cytochrome a3. Cytochrome C oxidase is the terminal or last H2 electron acceptor in an aerobic respiratory …

Read more

Mass Spectrometry (MS)- Principle, Working, Instrumentation, Steps, Applications

Mass Spectrometry (MS)

Mass Spectrometry (MS) Definition Mass Spectrometry (MS) is an analytical chemistry technique that helps identify the amount and type of chemicals present in a sample by measuring the mass-to-charge ratio and abundance of gas-phase ions. In this instrumental technique, the sample is converted to rapidly moving positive ions by electron bombardment and charged particles are separated according to their masses. …

Read more

Top 50 Microbiology Universities in the World (Updated 2021)

Top 50 Microbiology Universities in the World (Updated 2021)

Disclaimer: If there are any copyright issues regarding the name, logo, and information of the universities, please email us at [email protected] Ranking Source: U.S. News Best Global Universities The subject fields used in the analysis came from subject schemas in Clarivate, which uses the content and citation indicators from the Web of Science. Publications are limited to those published between 2014 …

Read more

Top 10 Microbiology Universities in the United States (2021)

Microbiology Universities in the United States

University Logo Source: Respective Universities Website. Disclaimer: Logos are only used for educational purposes. If there are any copyright issues regarding the name, logo, and information of the universities, please email us at [email protected] Ranking Source: U.S. News Best Global Universities The subject fields used in the analysis came from subject schemas in Clarivate, which uses the content and citation indicators …

Read more

Top 10 Microbiology Universities in Germany (Updated 2021)

Best Microbiology Universities in Germany

University Logo Source: Respective Universities Website. Disclaimer: Logos are only used for educational purposes. If there are any copyright issues regarding the name, logo, and information of the universities, please email us at [email protected] Ranking Source: U.S. News Best Global Universities The subject fields used in the analysis came from subject schemas in Clarivate, which uses the content and citation …

Read more

Staphylococcus aureus- An Overview

Staphylococcus aureus

Image Source: ASM and Bacteria in Photos. Habitat of Staphylococcus aureus The natural habitat is mammalian body surfaces. They are normal flora of the skin and mucous membrane. Also present in the nose / the anterior nares. They can also be found in Pharynx. Found in stratified epithelial cells or mucous or serum constituents associated with these cells. Found in skin/nasal …

Read more

Mycobacterium tuberculosis- An Overview

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Habitat of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Human is only a known reservoir. Usually found in the lungs but can also live in any part of the body. They may be obligate pathogen, facultative or opportunistic pathogens, or free living. Usually infect the mono-nuclear phagocytes. Can also be infected by the consumption of unpasteurized milk. Can survive for weeks in the dust, on …

Read more

Escherichia coli (E. coli)- An Overview

Habitat of E. coli

Habitat of E. coli E. coli was discovered by Theodor Escherich in 1885 after isolating it from the feces of newborns. E. coli is the normal flora of the human body. The niche of E. coli depends upon the availability of the nutrients within the intestine of host organisms. The primary habitat of E. coli is in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of …

Read more

Clostridium perfringens- An Overview

Clostridium perfringens

Image Source: Nanobugs. Habitat of Clostridium perfringens Clostridium perfringens are isolated from fecal specimens from humans and animals. They are an inhabitant of human normal intestinal flora. They are present in nature and can be found as a normal component of decaying vegetation, marine sediments, and soil. Beef, poultry, gravies and dried or pre-cooked foods are common sources of Clostridium …

Read more

Bacillus cereus- An Overview

Bacillus cereus

Habitat of Bacillus cereus Bacillus cereus is isolated from soil, vegetables, milk, cereals, spices, fried rice, cooked poultry and meats, soups, and desserts. It is also found in mashed potatoes, beef stew, apples, hot chocolates sold in vending machines, and other improper food handling areas. In 1887, B. cereus was isolated from air in a cowshed by Frankland and Frankland. It …

Read more

Lipase Test- Objectives, Principle, Procedures, Results, Uses

Result Interpretation of Lipase Test

Objectives of Lipase Test The objective is to identify bacteria capable of producing the exoenzyme lipase. The Lipase Test is used to detect and enumerate lipolytic bacteria, especially in high-fat dairy products. A variety of other lipid substrates, including corn oil, olive oil, and soybean oil, are used to detect differential characteristics among members of Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, and Neisseria. Several …

Read more

Optochin Susceptibility Test- Principle, Procedure and Results

Optochin Susceptibility Test- Principle, Procedure and Results

Objectives of Optochin Susceptibility Test To determine the effect of Optochin (ethyl hydrocupreine hydrochloride) on an organism. To differentiate between alpha-hemolytic Streptococcus pneumoniae from other alpha-hemolytic viridans Streptococci. Principle of Optochin Susceptibility Test Optochin (ethylhydrocupreine hydrochloride) is a chemical and is completely soluble in water. Optochin is an antibiotic that interferes with the ATPase and production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in microorganisms. Optochin is …

Read more