Scope of Epidemiology

Scope of Epidemiology

Scope of Epidemiology Epidemiology is defined as “the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations, and application of this study to control of health problems.” Epidemiological studies include observation, surveillance, hypothesis‐testing analytic research methods, and experiments. For many years epidemiology was considered to be restricted to the infectious … Read moreScope of Epidemiology

Epidemiological Markers

Phenotypic and Genetic Markers

Epidemiological Markers Epidemiological markers are biological markers that are used to characterize microorganisms or discriminate between genomes based on the genetic variation among microbial isolates. Uses of Epidemiological Markers Epidemiological markers are mostly used for strain typing. It is used to: Classify isolates of microorganisms Catalogue genetic variation Define relatedness or lack of it between … Read moreEpidemiological Markers

Biochemical Test of Haemophilus parainfluenzae

Biochemical Test of Haemophilus parainfluenzae

Biochemical Test of Haemophilus parainfluenzae Some of the characteristics are as follows: Basic Characteristics Properties (Haemophilus parainfluenzae) Capsule Variable Catalase Variable Gas Variable Gram Staining Gram-negative (-ve) H2S Positive (+ve) Hemolysis Negative (-ve) Indole Variable Motility Negative (-ve) Nitrate Reduction Positive (+ve) Nitrite Reduction Positive (+ve) Oxidase Positive (+ve) Shape Small, pleomorphic rods, usually with … Read moreBiochemical Test of Haemophilus parainfluenzae

Source and Reservoir of Infection

Source and Reservoir of Infection

Source and Reservoir of Infection The starting point for the occurrence of a communicable disease is the existence of a reservoir or source of infection. The source of infection is defined as “the person, animal, object or substance from which an infectious agent passes or is disseminated to the host (immediate source).” The reservoir is … Read moreSource and Reservoir of Infection

Shigella dysenteriae- Pathogenicity and Clinical Manifestation

Shigella dysenteriae- Pathogenicity and Clinical Manifestation

Shigella dysenteriae- Pathogenicity and Clinical Manifestation Shigella dysenteriae is a species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is extremely pathogenic and causes severe dysentery. Infection with this organism often leads to ulceration of the intestinal epithelium. It is known to produce an exotoxin (Shiga toxin) which disrupts protein synthesis and produces endothelial damage. Figure: … Read moreShigella dysenteriae- Pathogenicity and Clinical Manifestation

Data and its types

Data and its types

Data and its types Data is a set of values of subjects with respect to qualitative or quantitative variables. Data is raw, unorganized facts that need to be processed. Data can be something simple and seemingly random and useless until it is organized. When data is processed, organized, structured or presented in a given context … Read moreData and its types

Neisseria gonorrhoeae- Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention

Neisseria gonorrhoeae- Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention

Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an obligate human pathogen and is the etiological agent of gonorrhea. In the United States, it is the second most commonly reported communicable disease, with more than 350,000 cases reported annually. Syndromes include cervicitis in women and urethritis, pharyngitis and proctitis in both sexes. If untreated, women may experience severe sequelae of … Read moreNeisseria gonorrhoeae- Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention

Epidemic- Causes, Types, and Response

Epidemic- Causes, Types, and Response

Epidemic- Causes, Types, and Response An epidemic is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. According to modern concepts, an epidemic is defined as the occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illness or other health-related events … Read moreEpidemic- Causes, Types, and Response

Klebsiella pneumoniae- Pathogenicity and Clinical Manifestations

Klebsiella pneumoniae- Pathogenicity and Clinical Manifestations

Klebsiella pneumoniae- Pathogenicity and Clinical Manifestations Klebsiella pneumoniae is a gram-negative, encapsulated, non-motile bacterium that is found in the environment and has been associated with pneumonia in the alcoholic and diabetic patient population. K. pneumoniae is also a well-known cause of community-acquired pneumonia. The bacterium typically colonizes human mucosal surfaces of the oropharynx and gastrointestinal … Read moreKlebsiella pneumoniae- Pathogenicity and Clinical Manifestations

Modified Thayer Martin Agar

Modified Thayer Martin Agar

Modified Thayer Martin Agar Thayer and Martin reported an improvement of the Chocolate Agar formulation that contained antimicrobics vancomycin, colistin and nystatin have been added to minimize overgrowth by contaminants, suppress the growth of saprophytic Neisseria sp., and enhance the growth of pathogenic Neisseria. Martin and Lester later added antibiotic trimethoprim to make the medium … Read moreModified Thayer Martin Agar