Microbiology glossary, terms and definitions from X, Y and Z

Microbiology related glossary, terms and definition from X, Y and Z

Microbiology terms and definitions from X X-factor definition Substances from the heme fraction of blood hemoglobin. (Microbiology: An Introduction by Tortora, Funke, and Case) X-ray definition The ionizing radiation that can be used to sterilize objects. (Alcamo’s Fundamentals of Microbiology) Xenobiotic … Read more

Microbiology glossary, terms and definitions from W

Microbiology related glossary, terms and definition from W

Microbiology terms and definitions from W Wart definition An epidermal tumor caused by papillomaviruses. (Foundation in Microbiology by Talaro and Chess) Wastewater definition The liquid derived from domestic sewage or industrial sources, which cannot be discarded in untreated form into lakes … Read more

Microbiology glossary, terms and definitions from A

Microbiology glossary, terms and definition from A

Microbiology terms and definitions from A AB toxins definition Bacterial exotoxins consisting of two polypeptides. (Microbiology: An Introduction by Tortora, Funke, and Case) Exotoxins composed of two parts (A and B). The B portion is responsible for toxin binding to a … Read more

Oxidase Test- Principle, Procedure and Results

Oxidase Test

Objective of Oxidase Test To determine the ability of the organism to produce the cytochrome oxidase enzyme. Principle of Oxidase Test The oxidase test is designed for specifically detecting the presence of the terminal enzyme system in aerobic respiration called cytochrome … Read more

Staphylococcus aureus- An Overview

Staphylococcus aureus

Image Source: ASM and Bacteria in Photos. Habitat of Staphylococcus aureus The natural habitat is mammalian body surfaces. They are normal flora of the skin and mucous membrane. Also present in the nose / the anterior nares. They can also be … Read more

Mycobacterium tuberculosis- An Overview

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Habitat of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Human is only a known reservoir. Usually found in the lungs but can also live in any part of the body. They may be obligate pathogen, facultative or opportunistic pathogens, or free living. Usually infect the … Read more

Escherichia coli (E. coli)- An Overview

Habitat of E. coli

Habitat of E. coli E. coli was discovered by Theodor Escherich in 1885 after isolating it from the feces of newborns. E. coli is the normal flora of the human body. The niche of E. coli depends upon the availability of … Read more

Clostridium perfringens- An Overview

Clostridium perfringens

Image Source: Nanobugs. Habitat of Clostridium perfringens Clostridium perfringens are isolated from fecal specimens from humans and animals. They are an inhabitant of human normal intestinal flora. They are present in nature and can be found as a normal component … Read more

Bacillus cereus- An Overview

Bacillus cereus

Habitat of Bacillus cereus Bacillus cereus is isolated from soil, vegetables, milk, cereals, spices, fried rice, cooked poultry and meats, soups, and desserts. It is also found in mashed potatoes, beef stew, apples, hot chocolates sold in vending machines, and … Read more

Optochin Susceptibility Test- Principle, Procedure and Results

Optochin Susceptibility Test- Principle, Procedure and Results

Objectives of Optochin Susceptibility Test To determine the effect of Optochin (ethyl hydrocupreine hydrochloride) on an organism. To differentiate between alpha-hemolytic Streptococcus pneumoniae from other alpha-hemolytic viridans Streptococci. Principle of Optochin Susceptibility Test Optochin (ethylhydrocupreine hydrochloride) is a chemical and is completely soluble in … Read more

Novobiocin Susceptibility Test- Principle, Procedure, Results, Uses

Result Interpretation of Novobiocin Susceptibility Test

Objectives of Novobiocin Susceptibility Test To determine the susceptibility pattern of a bacterium to novobiocin. To distinguish or differentiate Staphylococcus saprophyticus from other coagulase-negative staphylococci. Principle of Novobiocin Susceptibility Test Novobiocin is an antibiotic interfering with the unpackaging and repackaging of DNA during DNA … Read more

Methyl Red (MR) Test- Principle, Procedure, Results, Uses

Result Interpretation of Methyl Red (MR) Test

Objectives of Methyl Red (MR) Test To differentiate two major types of facultative anaerobic enteric bacteria based on the production of acid. It identifies bacterial ability to produce stable acid end products by means of a mixed-acid fermentation of glucose. Principle of Methyl … Read more

Staphylococcus epidermidis- An Overview

Staphylococcus epidermidis - An Overview

What is Staphylococcus epidermidis? Staphylococcus epidermidis is a Gram-positive bacterium belonging to the genus Staphylococcus and is the most frequently isolated species from human epithelia. Staphylococci are known as clustering Gram-positive cocci, nonmotile, non-spore-forming facultatively anaerobic that classified into two … Read more

CBSE Class 11 Biology Syllabus (2020-2021)

CBSE Class 11 Biology Syllabus (2019-2020)

Unitwise Marking Scheme of CBSE Class 11 Biology Unit Title Marks I Diversity of Living Organisms 15 II Structural Organisation in Plants and Animals 8 III Cell: Structure and Function 15 IV Plant Physiology 15 V Human Physiology 17 Total … Read more