Hanta Virus

Hanta Virus

Structure of Hanta Virus Source: Viral Zone Hantavirus falls under the Bunyaviridae family. The virion displays round or pleomorphic morphology with a diameter of roughly 120-160 nm. The virus capsid is enveloped by a single layer envelope. The envelope surrounds three nucleocapsids and has surface projections. Surface projections are distinctive spikes which are surrounded by a … Read more Hanta Virus

Top 10 Microbiology Journals with Impact Factor (updated 2020)

Top 10 Microbiology Journals with Impact Factor (Updated 2020)

Top 10 Microbiology Journals with Impact Factor (updated 2020) Source of Ranking: Journal Citation Reports (Clarivate Analytics) Journal Logo Source: Respective Journals Website. Disclaimer: Logos and informations are only used for educational purposes. If there are any copyright issues regarding the logo and information of the journal, please email us at microbenotes@gmail.com. 1. Nature Reviews … Read more Top 10 Microbiology Journals with Impact Factor (updated 2020)

Epsilometer test (E test)

Epsilometer test (E test)

Introduction Epsilometer test (E- test) is defined as the “exponential gradient” method that determines the antimicrobial resistance of the microorganism. It is a cost-effective tool that has been developed to provide a direct quantification of antimicrobial susceptibility of microorganisms. It is a quantitative method that applies both the dilution of antibiotics and the diffusion of … Read more Epsilometer test (E test)

Differences between DNA and RNA (DNA vs RNA)

Differences between DNA and RNA

Differences between DNA and RNA (DNA vs RNA) Some of the differences are: S.N. Character DNA RNA 1.       Full form Deoxyribonucleic Acid  Ribonucleic Acid 2.       Location DNA is found in the nucleus, with a small amount of DNA also present in mitochondria. RNA forms in the nucleolus, and then moves to specialized regions … Read more Differences between DNA and RNA (DNA vs RNA)

Gram Stain- Principle, Reagents, Procedure, Steps, Results

Gram Stain- Principle, Reagents, Procedure and Result Interpretation

The Gram stain was developed by Christian Gram in 1884 and modified by Hucker in 1921. The objective of Gram Stain This test differentiates the bacteria into Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria, which helps in the classification and differentiation of microorganisms. The Gram stain separates bacteria into two groups: (1) Gram-positive microorganisms that retain the primary … Read more Gram Stain- Principle, Reagents, Procedure, Steps, Results

Outbreak Investigations- Objectives, Steps, Difficulties

Outbreak Investigations- Objectives, Steps, Difficulties

Outbreak Investigations- Objectives, Steps, Difficulties An outbreak is an increased frequency of a disease above the usual rate (endemic rate) in a given population or geographic area. Usually, the cases are presumed to have a common cause or to be related to one another in some way. Image Source: Clipart Station Why should we investigate … Read more Outbreak Investigations- Objectives, Steps, Difficulties

Human Cytomegalovirus

Structure of Human Cytomegalovirus Figure: Structure of Human Cytomegalo Virus, Source: Dr. Marko Reschke, Marburg, Germany Cytomegalovirus is a member of the herpes virus family that falls under the beta herpes subfamily. CMV is spherical in shape with icosahedral symmetry. The icosahedral protein capsid with an average diameter of 100 nm consists of 162 hollow … Read more Human Cytomegalovirus

Disease Control

Disease Control

Disease Control Control of communicable diseases, which implies reducing their occurrence, has always been a major public health priority. In the past, control measures were based on incomplete knowledge of the epidemiology of the disease to be controlled and were directed at perceived factors of disease causation. As knowledge of the epidemiology of diseases improved, … Read more Disease Control

Measles Virus

Measles Virus

Measles Virus Image Source: BBC Structure Measles virus is the prototypic member of the Morbillivirus genus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Measles virus is spherical with a diameter ranging from 120 to 1000 nm and has two major structural components: one is the helical ribonucleoprotein (RNP) core formed by the association of the nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein … Read more Measles Virus

Cytoskeleton- Definition, Structure, Functions and Diagram

Cytoskeleton

Cytoskeleton Definition The cytosol of cells contains fibers that help to maintain cell shape and mobility and that probably provide anchoring points for the other cellular structures. Collectively, these fibers are termed as the cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton gives cells structure and shape and allows them to move around. It’s also important for intracellular transport.  At … Read more Cytoskeleton- Definition, Structure, Functions and Diagram

Questionnaire- Types, Format, Questions

Questionnaire- Types, Format, Questions

A questionnaire is defined as a document containing questions and other types of items designed to solicit information appropriate for analysis. The questionnaire may be regarded as a form of an interview on paper. Procedure for the construction of a questionnaire follows a pattern similar to that of the interview schedule. However, because the questionnaire … Read more Questionnaire- Types, Format, Questions

Descriptive Studies- Types, Applications, Advantages, Limitations

Descriptive Studies- Types, Applications, Advantages, Limitations

A simple description of the health status of a community, based on routinely available data or on data obtained in special surveys, is often the first step in an epidemiological investigation. Such a study is termed as a descriptive study. A descriptive study – as the name implies – describes the distributions of disease, injury or health in a … Read more Descriptive Studies- Types, Applications, Advantages, Limitations

Error- Types, Sources and Control

Error- Types, Sources and Control

All epidemiological studies are mostly attempting to establish the presence or absence of a causal relationship, and the results are an estimate of the actual effect or degree of association. All studies are subject to error, which can obscure or minimize the truth- the size and nature of a causal relationship. Understanding common errors and … Read more Error- Types, Sources and Control