Human Cytomegalovirus

Structure of Human Cytomegalovirus Figure: Structure of Human Cytomegalo Virus, Source: Dr. Marko Reschke, Marburg, Germany Cytomegalovirus is a member of the herpes virus family that falls under the beta herpes subfamily. CMV is spherical in shape with icosahedral symmetry. The icosahedral protein capsid with an average diameter of 100 nm consists of 162 hollow … Read more Human Cytomegalovirus

Disease Control

Disease Control

Disease Control Control of communicable diseases, which implies reducing their occurrence, has always been a major public health priority. In the past, control measures were based on incomplete knowledge of the epidemiology of the disease to be controlled and were directed at perceived factors of disease causation. As knowledge of the epidemiology of diseases improved, … Read more Disease Control

Measles Virus

Measles Virus

Measles Virus Image Source: BBC Structure Measles virus is the prototypic member of the Morbillivirus genus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Measles virus is spherical with a diameter ranging from 120 to 1000 nm and has two major structural components: one is the helical ribonucleoprotein (RNP) core formed by the association of the nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein … Read more Measles Virus

Questionnaire- Types, Format, Questions

Questionnaire- Types, Format, Questions

A questionnaire is defined as a document containing questions and other types of items designed to solicit information appropriate for analysis. The questionnaire may be regarded as a form of an interview on paper. Procedure for the construction of a questionnaire follows a pattern similar to that of the interview schedule. However, because the questionnaire … Read more Questionnaire- Types, Format, Questions

Descriptive Studies- Types, Applications, Advantages, Limitations

Descriptive Studies- Types, Applications, Advantages, Limitations

A simple description of the health status of a community, based on routinely available data or on data obtained in special surveys, is often the first step in an epidemiological investigation. Such a study is termed as a descriptive study. A descriptive study – as the name implies – describes the distributions of disease, injury or health in a … Read more Descriptive Studies- Types, Applications, Advantages, Limitations

Error- Types, Sources and Control

Error- Types, Sources and Control

All epidemiological studies are mostly attempting to establish the presence or absence of a causal relationship, and the results are an estimate of the actual effect or degree of association. All studies are subject to error, which can obscure or minimize the truth- the size and nature of a causal relationship. Understanding common errors and … Read more Error- Types, Sources and Control

General Characteristics of Phylum Porifera

General Characteristics of Phylum Porifera

General Characteristics of Phylum Porifera Some of the characteristics are: Porifera are all aquatic, mostly marine except one family Spongillidae which lives in freshwater. They are sessile and sedentary and grow like plants. The body shape is vase or cylinder-like, asymmetrical or radially symmetrical. The body surface is perforated by numerous pores, the Ostia through … Read more General Characteristics of Phylum Porifera

Types of Microscopes

Types of Microscopes

Types of Microscopes A good microscope should have three properties: Good resolution: Resolution power refers to the ability to produce separate images of closely placed objects so that they can be distinguished as two separate entities. The resolution power of: The unaided human eye is about 0.2 mm (200 μm) The light microscope is about … Read more Types of Microscopes

Microbiology History

History of Microbiology

Microbiology History Louis Pasteur Louis Pasteur is also known as the father of microbiology. He has many contributions to microbiology: He has proposed the principles of fermentation for the preservation of food. He introduced sterilization techniques and developed steam sterilizers, hot air oven, and autoclave. He described the method of pasteurization of milk. He had … Read more Microbiology History

General Characteristics of Phylum Protozoa

General Characters of Phylum Protozoa

General Characteristics of Phylum Protozoa Some of the characteristics are: There are about 50,000 known species of Phylum Protozoa. Protozoans exhibit mainly two forms of life; free-living (aquatic, fresh water, sea water) and parasitic (ectoparasites or endoparasites). They are also commensal in habitat. They are small, usually microscopic, not visualize without a microscope. They are … Read more General Characteristics of Phylum Protozoa