Lipase Test- Objectives, Principle, Procedures, Results, Uses

Result Interpretation of Lipase Test

Objectives of Lipase Test The objective is to identify bacteria capable of producing the exoenzyme lipase. The Lipase Test is used to detect and enumerate lipolytic bacteria, especially in high-fat dairy products. A variety of other lipid substrates, including corn oil, olive oil, and soybean oil, are used to detect differential characteristics among members of Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, and Neisseria. Several …

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Optochin Susceptibility Test- Principle, Procedure and Results

Optochin Susceptibility Test- Principle, Procedure and Results

Objectives of Optochin Susceptibility Test To determine the effect of Optochin (ethyl hydrocupreine hydrochloride) on an organism. To differentiate between alpha-hemolytic Streptococcus pneumoniae from other alpha-hemolytic viridans Streptococci. Principle of Optochin Susceptibility Test Optochin (ethylhydrocupreine hydrochloride) is a chemical and is completely soluble in water. Optochin is an antibiotic that interferes with the ATPase and production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in microorganisms. Optochin is …

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Novobiocin Susceptibility Test- Principle, Procedure, Results, Uses

Result Interpretation of Novobiocin Susceptibility Test

Objectives of Novobiocin Susceptibility Test To determine the susceptibility pattern of a bacterium to novobiocin. To distinguish or differentiate Staphylococcus saprophyticus from other coagulase-negative staphylococci. Principle of Novobiocin Susceptibility Test Novobiocin is an antibiotic interfering with the unpackaging and repackaging of DNA during DNA replication and the bacterial cell cycle. Novobiocin binds to DNA gyrase and blocks adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity.  Laboratory identification of S. …

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Methyl Red (MR) Test- Principle, Procedure, Results, Uses

Result Interpretation of Methyl Red (MR) Test

Objectives of Methyl Red (MR) Test To differentiate two major types of facultative anaerobic enteric bacteria based on the production of acid. It identifies bacterial ability to produce stable acid end products by means of a mixed-acid fermentation of glucose. Principle of Methyl Red (MR) Test Methyl red test, commonly known as MR test is used to determine the ability of an organism …

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Staphylococcus epidermidis- An Overview

Staphylococcus epidermidis - An Overview

What is Staphylococcus epidermidis? Staphylococcus epidermidis is a Gram-positive bacterium belonging to the genus Staphylococcus and is the most frequently isolated species from human epithelia. Staphylococci are known as clustering Gram-positive cocci, nonmotile, non-spore-forming facultatively anaerobic that classified into two main groups, coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative. S. epidermidis belongs to the group of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), which is different from coagulase-positive …

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Top and Best Biology Websites or Blogs according to Alexa Rank

Top and Best Biology Websites or Blogs

Note: Since Alexa ranking is updated daily, there might be some changes in ranking and position. We update the website/blog rank only once or twice a month. If your website/blog is not listed below or we missed it, you can email your website/blog URL to microbenotes(at)gmail(dot)com and we will update it on this page. These are the top and best biology …

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CBSE Class 11 Biology Syllabus (2020-2021)

CBSE Class 11 Biology Syllabus (2019-2020)

Unitwise Marking Scheme of CBSE Class 11 Biology Unit Title Marks I Diversity of Living Organisms 15 II Structural Organisation in Plants and Animals 8 III Cell: Structure and Function 15 IV Plant Physiology 15 V Human Physiology 17 Total 70 Unit-I Diversity of Living Organisms Chapter-1: The Living World What is living? Biodiversity; Need for classification; three domains of …

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CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus (2020-2021)

CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus (2019-2020)

Unitwise Marking Scheme of CBSE Class 12 Biology Unit Title Marks VI Reproduction 14 VII Genetics and Evolution 18 VIII Biology and Human Welfare 14 IX Biotechnology and its Applications 12 X Ecology and Environment 12 Total 70 Unit-VI Reproduction Chapter-1: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination – types, agencies and examples; …

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International Baccalaureate (IB) Biology Syllabus (Core+Options)

International Baccalaureate (IB) Biology Syllabus (Core+Options)

Image Credit: International Baccalaureate Organization. Core Topics (95 Hours) Topic 1. Cell biology (15 Hours) 1.1 Introduction to Cells 1.2 Ultrastructure of Cells 1.3 Membrane Structure 1.4 Membrane Transport 1.5 Origin of Cells 1.6 Cell Division Topic 2. Molecular biology (21 Hours) 2.1 Molecules to Metabolism 2.2 Water 2.3 Carbohydrates and Lipids 2.4 Proteins 2.5 Enzymes 2.6 Structure of DNA …

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Class 12 Biology (Botany + Zoology) Syllabus 2020 (Nepal)

Class 12 Biology (Botany + Zoology) Syllabus 2020 (Nepal)

Bio. 302 (Class 12 Biology Syllabus with practical and sample project works) Grade 12 – Botany (Theory) (64 teaching hours) Unit 1 – Plant Anatomy (8 teaching hours) 1.1 Plant anatomy: Concept of tissues, types of plant tissues (meristems and permanent tissues), Anatomy of dicot and monocot root, stem and leaf Secondary growth of dicot stem. (8 teaching hours) Unit …

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