Enterobacteriaceae Cultural Characteristics

Enterobacteriaceae Cultural Characteristics

Last Updated on June 18, 2020 by Sagar Aryal

Enterobacteriaceae Cultural Characteristics

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Cultural Characteristics of Citrobacter freundii

Citrobacter freundii on Nutrient Agar

Smooth, convex, translucent, or opaque grey colored with a shiny surface and entire margin; mucoid or rough colonies occasionally.

Citrobacter freundii on Blood Agar

Circular, flat, entire red colored colonies.

Citrobacter freundii on Mac-Conkey Agar

Pink colored after 24 hr incubation; pale-colored colonies turn pink after further 24 hr incubation.

Citrobacter freundii on Violet Red Bile Agar (VRBA)

Red to pink flat colonies; green metallic sheen over colonies.

Citrobacter freundii on XLD Agar

Partial to complete inhibition; yellow to yellow-red colonies.

Citrobacter freundii on Salmonella Shigella (SS)

Colorless colonies with grey or black centers.

Citrobacter freundii on EMB agar

Brown colored colonies without any metallic sheen.

Cultural Characteristics of E. coli

E. coli on Nutrient Agar

Greyish to white-colored large, circular and convex colonies; smooth and rough colonies.

E. coli on Blood Agar

Greyish colored big and circular colonies.

E. coli on Mac-Conkey Agar

Pink-colored circular colonies with entire margin; flat lactose fermenting colonies.

E. coli on Violet Red Bile Agar (VRBA)

Red to pink flat colonies; green metallic sheen over colonies; blue fluorescence around the colonies under UV.

E. coli on XLD Agar

Partial to complete inhibition; yellow to yellow-red colonies.

E. coli on Salmonella Shigella (SS)

Slight growth; pink to red-colored small circular colonies.

E. coli on EMB agar

Blue-black bull’s eye colonies with a metallic green sheen.

E. coli on Bile Esculin Agar

Growth with no blackening of the medium.

Cultural Characteristics of Enterobacter cloacae

Enterobacter cloacae on Nutrient Agar

Greyish to white-colored large, circular, and convex colonies.

Enterobacter cloacae on Blood Agar

Large, smooth, flat colonies with entire margin without beta hemolysis.

Enterobacter cloacae on Mac-Conkey Agar

Pink to red-colored mucoid colonies.

Enterobacter cloacae on Violet Red Bile Agar (VRBA)

Red-colored colonies surrounded by reddish precipitation zone; 1-2 mm in diameter.

Enterobacter cloacae on XLD Agar

Fair growth with yellow colonies.

Enterobacter cloacae on Salmonella Shigella (SS)

Partially inhibited; Cream to pink-colored colonies.

Enterobacter cloacae on EMB agar

Fair growth; pink-colored colonies without a sheen.

Enterobacter cloacae  on Bile Esculin Agar

Growth with blackening of the medium.

Cultural Characteristics of Klebsiella oxytoca

Klebsiella oxytoca on Nutrient Agar

Circular, dome-shaped, mucoid, translucent or opaque, yellow to cream-colored colonies; 2-3 mm diameter.

Klebsiella oxytoca on Blood Agar

Circular, dome-shaped, mucoid, translucent or opaque greyish white colonies; 2-3 mm diameter; γ- hemolysis (no hemolysis).

Klebsiella oxytoca on Mac-Conkey Agar

Circular, convex, mucoid, pink to red-colored opaque colonies; 2-3 mm in diameter.

Klebsiella oxytoca on Violet Red Bile Agar (VRBA)

Large, mucous, and golden- or dull-yellow colored colonies.

Klebsiella oxytoca on XLD Agar

Yellow, surrounded by yellow zones, opaque, mucoid with precipitation zones.

Klebsiella oxytoca on Salmonella Shigella (SS)

Pink or red to cream-colored, mucoid, opaque colonies.

Klebsiella oxytoca on EMB agar

Circular, dome-shaped, mucoid, pink to purple colored translucent or opaque colonies; 2-3 mm in diameter.

Klebsiella oxytoca on Bile Esculin Agar

Growth with blackening of the medium within 4 hr.

Cultural Characteristics of Klebsiella pneumoniae

Klebsiella pneumoniae on Nutrient Agar

Circular, dome-shaped, mucoid, translucent, or opaque greyish white colonies; 2-3 mm diameter.

Klebsiella pneumoniae on Blood Agar

Circular, dome-shaped, mucoid, translucent or opaque greyish white colonies; 2-3 mm diameter; γ- hemolysis (no hemolysis).

Klebsiella pneumoniae on Mac-Conkey Agar

Circular, convex, mucoid, pink to red-colored opaque colonies; 2-3 mm in diameter.

Klebsiella pneumoniae on Violet Red Bile Agar (VRBA)

Large, mucous, and golden- or dull-yellow colored colonies.

Klebsiella pneumoniae on XLD Agar

Yellow, surrounded by yellow zones, opaque, mucoid with precipitation zones.

Klebsiella pneumoniae on Salmonella Shigella (SS)

Pink or red to cream-colored, mucoid, opaque colonies.

Klebsiella pneumoniae on EMB agar

Circular, dome-shaped, mucoid, pink to purple colored translucent or opaque colonies; 2-3 mm in diameter.

Klebsiella pneumoniae on Bile Esculin Agar

Growth with blackening of the medium within 4 hr.

Cultural Characteristics of Morganella morganii

Morganella morganii on Nutrient Agar

Circular, dome-shaped, mucoid, opaque cream-colored colonies.

Morganella morganii on Blood Agar

Off-white or cream-colored, smooth, convex, pinpoint white centers, shiny opaque colonies.

Morganella morganii on Mac-Conkey Agar

Flat, colorless colonies; 2-3 mm diameter.

Morganella morganii on Violet Red Bile Agar (VRBA)

Circular opaque colorless colonies.

Morganella morganii on XLD Agar

Yellow colonies with acid production that changes the pH of the medium.

Morganella morganii on Salmonella Shigella (SS)

Dark blue, purple, or violet colonies with clear or pink edges.

Morganella morganii on EMB agar

Flat, colorless colonies; 2-3 mm diameter.

Morganella morganii on Bile Esculin Agar

Growth with no blackening of the medium.

Cultural Characteristics of Proteus mirabilis

Proteus mirabilis on Nutrient Agar

Pale white colonies as swarming growth with successive waves to form a thin filmy layer of concentric circles.

Proteus mirabilis on Blood Agar

Pale white colonies as swarming growth with successive waves to form a thin sheer layer of concentric circles; swarming can be controlled by adding 0.1% boric acid.

Proteus mirabilis on Mac-Conkey Agar

Flat colorless colonies (non-lactose fermenting).

Proteus mirabilis on Violet Red Bile Agar (VRBA)

Light-purple color colonies surrounded by red color swarming.

Proteus mirabilis on XLD Agar

Yellow, surrounded by yellow zones, translucent, black center.

Proteus mirabilis on EMB agar

Luxuriant growth; Grey colored colonies (non-lactose fermenting).

Proteus mirabilis on Bile Esculin Agar

Growth with no blackening of the medium.

Cultural Characteristics of Proteus vulgaris

Proteus vulgaris on Nutrient Agar

3-4 mm. in diameter, colorless, lenticular with either an entire or a finely, radially striated edge and a ‘beaten copper ’ surface.

Proteus vulgaris on Blood Agar

Pale white colonies as swarming growth with successive waves to form a thin filmy layer of concentric circles; swarming can be controlled by adding 0.1% boric acid.

Proteus vulgaris on Mac-Conkey Agar

Flat colorless colonies (non-lactose fermenting).

Proteus vulgaris on Violet Red Bile Agar (VRBA)

Pinpoint colonies with no halo around the colonies; media changes to red color due to the alkaline pH.

Proteus vulgaris on XLD Agar

Yellow, surrounded by yellow zones, translucent, black center.

Proteus vulgaris on EMB agar

Luxuriant growth; Grey colored colonies (non-lactose fermenting).

Proteus vulgaris on Bile Esculin Agar

Growth with no blackening of the medium.

Cultural Characteristics of Providencia stuartii

Providencia stuartii on Nutrient Agar

Relatively large, dull grey colonies; non-swarming.

Providencia stuartii on Blood Agar

1.0 to 2.0 mm in diameter, glossy, semitranslucent, and smooth; no hemolysis.

Providencia stuartii on Mac-Conkey Agar

Luxuriant growth; Orange to red-colored colonies.

Providencia stuartii on Violet Red Bile Agar (VRBA)

Small colorless colonies.

Providencia stuartii on XLD Agar

Yellow colonies with acid production that changes the pH of the medium.

Providencia stuartii on Cetrimide Agar

Brown or light pink colonies with blue/grey centers.

Providencia stuartii on Salmonella Shigella (SS) agar

Colorless colonies that turn Red or brown colored after 48 hr.

Providencia stuartii on EMB agar

Colorless smooth and translucent colonies.

Providencia stuartii on Bile Esculin Agar

Growth with no blackening of the medium.

Cultural Characteristics of Salmonella enterica

Salmonella enterica on Nutrient Agar

Smooth colorless colonies with 2-4 mm diameter.

Salmonella enterica on Blood Agar

Non-hemolytic smooth white colonies.

Salmonella enterica on Mac-Conkey Agar

Transparent colorless colonies with no zone of precipitation.

Salmonella enterica on Violet Red Bile Agar (VRBA)

Colorless to orangish-yellow non-lactose fermenting colonies.

Salmonella enterica on XLD Agar

Red colonies with black centers; media itself turn red due to growth.

Salmonella enterica on Salmonella Shigella (SS) agar

Colorless colonies with black centers.

Salmonella enterica on EMB agar

Luxuriant growth; colorless non-fermenting colonies; some strains might be inhibited.

Cultural Characteristics of Serratia marcescens

Serratia marcescens on Nutrient Agar

Red, smooth, convex, entire, and round colonies; red color due to production of pigment.

Serratia marcescens on Blood Agar

Small white colonies 1-2 mm in diameter, slightly raised with convex surfaces; glistening with entire margin; non-hemolytic.

Serratia marcescens on Mac-Conkey Agar

Confluent growth; Pink colored colonies.

Serratia marcescens on Violet Red Bile Agar (VRBA)

Colorless to orangish-yellow non-lactose fermenting colonies.

Serratia marcescens on XLD Agar

Yellow colonies with acid production that changes the pH of the medium.

Serratia marcescens on Cetrimide Agar

Dark blue, purple, or violet colonies with clear or pink edges.

Serratia marcescens on Salmonella Shigella (SS) agar

Pink or red to cream-colored, mucoid, opaque colonies.

Serratia marcescens on EMB agar

Confluent growth; Pink colored colonies

Serratia marcescens on Bile Esculin Agar

Growth with blackening of the medium within 4 hr.

Cultural Characteristics of Shigella dysenteriae

Shigella dysenteriae on Nutrient Agar

Smooth colorless colonies with 2-4 mm diameter.

Shigella dysenteriae on Blood Agar

Non-hemolytic smooth white colonies.

Shigella dysenteriae on Mac-Conkey Agar

Transparent colorless colonies with no zone of precipitation.

Shigella dysenteriae on Violet Red Bile Agar (VRBA)

Colorless to orangish-yellow non-lactose fermenting colonies.

Shigella dysenteriae on XLD Agar

Red colonies without any black centers; some strains ferment lactose with yellow colonies.

Shigella dysenteriae on Salmonella Shigella (SS) agar

No growth; some strains grow forming colorless colonies without black centers.

Shigella dysenteriae on EMB agar

Luxuriant growth; colorless non-fermenting colonies.

Cultural Characteristics of Yersinia pestis

Yersinia pestis on Nutrient Agar

Tiny, almost invisible, shiny grey, translucent “spots’;1 to 2 mm irregular, grey-white to slightly yellow in color with raised, irregular, “fried egg” appearance, which becomes prominent as the culture ages.

Yersinia pestis on Blood Agar

White or cream-colored, opaque colonies with entire margin; no hemolysis.

Yersinia pestis on Mac-Conkey Agar

Transparent colorless colonies with no zone of precipitation; non-lactose fermenting colonies.

Yersinia pestis on Violet Red Bile Agar (VRBA)

Circular opaque colorless colonies.

Yersinia pestis on XLD Agar

Yellow colonies with acid production that changes the pH of the medium.

Yersinia pestis on Cetrimide Agar

Pink colonies, with or without purple centers.

Yersinia pestis on EMB agar

Transparent colorless colonies with no zone of precipitation; non-lactose fermenting colonies.

Yersinia pestis on Bile Esculin Agar

Luxuriant growth with blackening of the medium.

References

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  2. Leclercq, A., Wanegue, C., & Baylac, P. (2002). Comparison of fecal coliform agar and violet red bile lactose agar for fecal coliform enumeration in foods. Applied and environmental microbiology68(4), 1631–1638. https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.68.4.1631-1638.2002
  3. Van Kregten, E., Westerdaal, N. A., & Willers, J. M. (1984). New, simple medium for selective recovery of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca from human feces. Journal of clinical microbiology20(5), 936–941.
  4. Se-Ping Chein, Daniel Y.C. Fung, Acriflavine violet red bile agar for the isolation and enumeration ofKlebsiella pneumoniae, Food Microbiology. Volume 7, Issue 4, 1990, Pages 295-304, ISSN 0740-0020, https://doi.org/10.1016/0740-0020(90)90034-F.
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  6. Hazem Akel and Afnan Hunaity, 2006. Growth, Swarming and Production of Halo-zone of Different Proteus mirabilis Strains Isolated from Jordanian Clinical Specimens. Journal of Medical Sciences, 6: 405-409.
  7. Budding, A. E., Ingham, C. J., Bitter, W., Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C. M., & Schneeberger, P. M. (2009). The Dienes phenomenon: competition and territoriality in Swarming Proteus mirabilis. Journal of bacteriology191(12), 3892–3900. https://doi.org/10.1128/JB.00975-08
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Enterobacteriaceae Cultural Characteristics

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