|1.||Alternate Name||Equational Division||Reduction Division|
|2.||Discovered by||Walther Flemming||Oscar Hertwig|
|3.||Type of Cells Involved||Somatic cells.||Sex cells/germ cells or gametes.|
|4.||Type of Reproduction||Asexual division||Sexual division|
|5.||Mother Cells||Can be either haploid or diploid||Always diploid|
|6.||Number of Divisions||Mitosis involves only one cell division.||Involves two successive divisions.|
|8.||Number of daughter cells||Two||Four|
|9.||Result into||Diploid (2n) offspring||Haploid (n) offspring|
|10.||Reduction in Chromosome Number||No reduction in chromosome number.||Results in the reduction in chromosome number by half.|
|11.||Genetical Identity||Daughter cells are genetically the same.||Daughter cells are genetically different due to recombination.|
|12.||Recombination or Crossing over||No recombination or crossing over occurs.||Crossing over occurs.|
|13.||Leads to formation of||Everything other than sex cells.||Sex cells only: female egg cells or male sperm cells.|
|14.||Steps Involved||Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase.||(Meiosis 1) Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, Telophase I; (Meiosis 2) Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II and Telophase II.|
|15.||Interphase||Interphase occurs prior to each division.||Interphase precedes in only Meiosis I. It does not occur prior to Meiosis II.|
|16.||DNA replication during Interphase||Takes place during Interphase.||Takes place during Interphase I but not during Interphase II.|
|17.||DNA replication||Occurs once for one cell division.||Occurs once for two cell divisions.|
|18.||Steps and Length of Prophase||A cell spends less time in prophase of mitosis than a cell in prophase I of meiosis.
No sub stages occur in mitosis.
|Prophase I consist of five stages and lasts longer than prophase of mitosis. The five stages of meiotic prophase I are leptotene, zygotene, pachytene, diplotene, and diakinesis.|
|20.||Synapsis||No synapsis||Synapsis of homologous chromosomes takes place during prophase.|
|21.||Tetrad Formation||Tetrad formation does not occur.||A tetrad consisting of four chromatids (two sets of sister chromatids) lined up closely together is formed.|
|22.||Centromere||Each chromosome consists of two chromatids united by a centromere.||The two homologous chromosomes form bivalents or tetrads. Each bivalents has four chromatids and two centromeres.|
|23.||Metaphase||Sister chromatids align at the metaphase plate (a plane that is equally distant from the two cell poles).||Tetrads (homologous chromosome pairs) align at the metaphase plate in metaphase I.|
|24.||Chromosome Alignment in Metaphase||In the metaphase plate, all the centromeres line up in same plate.||In metaphase I, the centromeres are lined up in two planes which are parallel to one another.|
|25.||Chiasmata||Absent||Observed during prophase I and metaphase I.|
|26.||Anaphase||Sister chromatids separate and begin migrating centromere first toward opposite poles of the cell. A separated sister chromatid becomes known as daughter chromosome and is considered a full chromosome.||During anaphase I, (double stranded) chromosomes are separated toward each cellular pole. Sister chromatids do not separate in anaphase I. |
On the other hand, (single stranded) chromosomes are the ones being segregated during anaphase II.
|27.||Centromeres Split||The centromeres split during anaphase.||The centromeres do not separate during anaphase I, but during anaphase II.|
|28.||Spindle Fibres||Disappear completely in telophase.||Do not disappear completely in telophase I.|
|29.||Nucleoli||Reappear at telophase.||Do not reappear at telophase I.|
|30.||Karyokinesis||Occurs in Interphase.||Occurs in Interphase I.|
|31.||Cytokinesis (division of the cytoplasm)||Occurs at the end of telophase.||Cytokinesis happens at the end of telophase I and telophase II.|
|32.||Functions||Facilitate growth, repair, and replacement.|
To produce more cells especially during the early stages of development.
To regenerate damaged and lost cells.
Mitosis also occurs in prokaryotes as an essential form of asexual reproduction.
|Takes part in the formation of gametes.|
To maintain the chromosome number of the offspring.
For maintenance of genetic diversity on which the process of natural selection acts upon.
- Verma, P., & Agarwal, V. (2005). Cell biology, genetics, molecular biology, evolution and ecology. New Delhi: S.Chand.