Descriptive Studies- Types, Applications, Advantages, Limitations

Descriptive Studies- Types, Applications, Advantages, Limitations

A simple description of the health status of a community, based on routinely available data or on data obtained in special surveys, is often the first step in an epidemiological investigation. Such a study is termed as a descriptive study. A descriptive study – as the name implies – describes the distributions of disease, injury or health in a population, outlining the burden of …

Read moreDescriptive Studies- Types, Applications, Advantages, Limitations

Types of Bias in Epidemiology

Common Types of Bias

Any trend in the collection, analysis, interpretation, publication, or review of data that can lead to conclusions that are systematically different from the truth can be termed as bias. Bias is a major consideration in any type of epidemiologic study design. It has been defined as “any systematic error in the design, conduct or analysis of a study that results …

Read moreTypes of Bias in Epidemiology

Questionnaires and Schedules

Questionnaires and Schedules

The research process is incomplete without the collection of data, which starts after the identification of the research problems and chalking out research design. There are several methods involved in the collection of primary data, like observation, interviews, questionnaires, schedules, etc. Both questionnaire and schedule are popularly used methods of collecting data in research surveys. There is much resemblance in …

Read moreQuestionnaires and Schedules

Data and its types

Data and its types

Data is a set of values of subjects with respect to qualitative or quantitative variables. Data is raw, unorganized facts that need to be processed. Data can be something simple and seemingly random and useless until it is organized. When data is processed, organized, structured or presented in a given context so as to make it useful, it is called …

Read moreData and its types

Common mistakes in Proposal writing

Common mistakes in Proposal writing

Some of the mistakes are: Choosing a topic that is too large. Choosing a topic which is too complex for research at the level of the researcher. Not giving due consideration to the time factor. This factor is important because the research work is to be completed within the prescribed time period. Choosing research where materials are not easily accessible. …

Read moreCommon mistakes in Proposal writing

Questionnaire method of data collection

Questionnaire method of data collection

Questionnaire is as an instrument for research, which consists of a list of questions, along with the choice of answers, printed or typed in a sequence on a form used for acquiring specific information from the respondents. In general, questionnaires are delivered to the persons concerned either by post or mail, requesting them to answer the questions and return it. …

Read moreQuestionnaire method of data collection

Nominal, Ordinal, Interval and Ratio Data

Nominal, Ordinal, Interval and Ratio Data

Depending on the measurements, there are four different types of data that can be achieved. These different types of data are nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio data. These different variances of data vary in complexity of obtaining. Nominal Data Nominal data is the least complex of the four types of data. Nominal or categorical data is data that comprises of …

Read moreNominal, Ordinal, Interval and Ratio Data

Primary Data and Secondary Data

Primary Data and Secondary Data

There are two major approaches to gathering information about a situation, person, problem or phenomenon. When you undertake a research study, in most situations, you need to collect the required information; however, sometimes the information required is already available and need only be extracted. Based on these broad approaches to information gathering, data can be categorized as: Primary data Secondary …

Read morePrimary Data and Secondary Data