Hypersensitivity Type I, II, III and IV in one table

Watch Biology Educational Videos

Last Updated on November 23, 2020 by Sagar Aryal

Hypersensitivity Type I, II, III and IV in one table

Here is the comparison table:

S.N.CharacterType IType IIType IIIType IV
1Alternative NameAllergic hypersensitivityCytotoxic hypersensitivityImmune complex hypersensitivityCell-mediated hypersensitivity/ Delayed type of hypersensitivity
2PrincipleAntibody-mediated degranulation of granulocytes leading to the destruction of cells.Antibody-mediated destruction of healthy cells.Antigen-antibody complex-mediated destruction of cells.T lymphocytes mediated destruction of cells.
3Primary MediatorIgEIgG/IgMIgG/IgMSpecific subsets of CD4+ helper T cells or CD8+ cytotoxic T cells.
4Other components as mediatorsMast cells, Basophils, histamine & other pharmacological agentsComplement, NeutrophilsComplement, phagocytes and K cellsDendritic cells, macrophages, and cytokines
5Reaction timeImmediate or within a few hours5-8 hours2-8 hoursAfter 24 hours only, mostly 48-72 hours after contact
6AntigenFree in circulation (Soluble)Fixed on cellsFree in circulation ( Soluble)Soluble or cell-bound
7Antigen originExogenousEndogenous or exogenousExogenous or endogenousExogenous or endogenous
8AntibodyFixed on mast cells and basophilsFree in circulationFree in circulationNot applicable
9MechanismAllergen-specific IgE antibodies bind to mast cells via their Fc receptor. When the specific allergen binds to the IgE, cross-linking of IgE induces degranulation of mast cells.IgG or IgM antibody binds to a cellular antigen, leading to complement activation and cell lysis. IgG can also mediate ADCC with cytotoxic T cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, and neutrophils.Antigen-antibody complexes are deposited in tissues. Complement activation provides inflammatory mediators and recruits neutrophils. Enzymes released from neutrophils damage tissue.Th2 cells secrete cytokines, which activate macrophages and cytotoxic T cells.
10Complement activationNoYesYesNo
11AppearanceWeal & flareLysis & necrosisErythema & edemaErythema & induration
12Transfer with serumPassive transfer possible with serumPassive transferPassive transferCannot be transferred with serum; but possible with T cells transfer
13DesensitizationEasy but short-livedEasy but short-livedEasy but short-livedDifficult but long-lived.
14ExamplesAsthma, Rhinitis, Atopic eczema, Bee sting reactionRhesus incompatibility (Rh hemolytic disease), Transfusion Reactions, Cell Destruction due to autoantigens, Drug-Induced Hemolytic AnemiaGlomerulonephritis, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Farmer’s lung arthritis, VasculitisThe tuberculin reaction, Granuloma formation, Allergic contact dermatitis, Type-1 diabetes

References

  1. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/microbiology/chapter/hypersensitivities/
  2. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/immunology/4-main-types-of-hypersensitivity-immunology/61851
  3. https://www.slideshare.net/drsomeshwaranamsana/hypersensitivity-reactions-dr-somesh-microbiology
  4. http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/immunology/type-iii-hypersensitivity-and-its-mechanism-human-immunology/28081
  5. Lydyard, P.M., Whelan,A.,& Fanger,M.W. (2005).Immunology (2 ed.).London: BIOS Scientific Publishers.
  6. Owen, J. A., Punt, J., & Stranford, S. A. (2013). Kuby Immunology (7 ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.

Leave a Comment

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.