Integumentary System- definition, organs, functions, diseases

Integumentary System

Figure: The Integumentary System. Image Source: Wikipedia, and Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Integumentary System definition The integumentary system is a system comprised of organs that are the outermost protective covering of the animal body, the skin, and its various derivatives. The integumentary system protects against many threats such as infection, desiccation, abrasion, chemical assault, and radiation damage. In humans, the primary organ of the integumentary system is the skin. Along with skin, several other glands and different sensory units like somatosensory … Read more

Week by week pregnancy (Baby and body development with tips)

Week-wise timeline of pregnancy (Week 1 to Week 40)

Disclaimer: The information presented on the website is for academic, study, and general information purposes only. The information and tips presented on the website must not be used for the purpose of medical advice or diagnosis or treatment. If you are not feeling well, please consult with your physician or doctor or qualified health care providers. Pregnancy is a period that begins from the first day of the last menstrual cycle and ends with the birth of the baby. This … Read more

Menstrual Cycle- definition, hormones, phases, diagram

Menstrual Cycle

Menstrual Cycle Definition The menstrual cycle is the process of discharge of blood and other things from the vagina of a woman every month from puberty to menopause excluding pregnancy. It is a natural periodical process that brings changes in the female reproductive system which is responsible for the pregnancy. It includes changes that occur in the ovary and the uterine walls simultaneously as a result of changes in the level of hormones in the blood. Two significant events occur … Read more

Gonads (Ovaries and Testes)- Definition, Structure, Hormones, Functions

Gonads (Ovaries and Testes)

What are Gonads? Gonads Definition The male and female gonads are endocrine glands that produce sex hormones essential for the development of reproductive organs and the proper functioning of the process of reproduction. Gonads secrete the same set of hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex in the form of androgens. The release of hormones by the gonads is regulated by the release of gonadotrophin stimulating hormone of the pituitary gland. The male gonads are called testes, whereas the female gonads … Read more

Pancreas- Definition, Structure, Hormones, Functions, Disorders


What is Pancreas? Definition of Pancreas The pancreas is a complex organ consisting of both exocrine and endocrine areas where the endocrine part is composed of discrete islets of Langerhans that secrete numerous hormones. The studies related to the Islets of Langerhans have increased over the years due to the involvement of the cells in diabetes. The islets composed of a few thousand endocrine cells account for about 2% of the total pancreatic mass. The primary function of the endocrine … Read more

Pineal Gland- Definition, Structure, Hormones, Functions, Disorders

Pineal Gland

What is Pineal Gland? Definition of Pineal Gland The pineal gland is an endocrine gland present at the geometric center of the brain that is essential in the circadian cycle of sleep and wakefulness of the body. Since the gland is present at the posterior area of the cranial fossa in the brain, it is also known as the epiphysis cerebri. The pineal gland occurs in all vertebrates, and it has been studied that pineal-like organs can also be found … Read more

Parathyroid Gland- Definition, Structure, Hormones, Functions, Disorders

Parathyroid Gland

What is Parathyroid Gland? Definition of Parathyroid Gland The parathyroid gland is a type of endocrine gland that occurs in the upper and lower poles of the thyroid gland. There are four parathyroid glands that are distributed as two glands on either side of the thorax. The number of parathyroid glands in humans can differ between different individuals. As many as eight parathyroid glands have been reported, some of which might be located in other areas in the neck. The … Read more

Adrenal Gland- Definition, Structure, Hormones, Functions, Disorders

Adrenal Gland

What is Adrenal Gland? Definition of Adrenal Gland The adrenal glands, also called suprarenal glands, are a pair of glands occurring on the top of kidneys and produce different steroid hormones. Adrenal glands consist of two distinct structures; the adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla, both of which are different in structure as well as functions. Adrenal glands have been a topic of interest in biology over the years due to their heterogeneous structure, complex neural connections, multiple physiological functions, and … Read more

Thymus Gland- Definition, Structure, Hormones, Functions, Disorders

Thymus Gland

What is Thymus Gland? Definition of Thymus Gland The thymus gland is one of the key organs in the lymphatic system, which occurs in the mediastinum below the sternum. The thymus extends from the lower edge of the thyroid gland to the fourth intercostal space of the vertebrae. The thymus gland is distinct from other endocrine glands in that it is active only before puberty. The gland grows the largest at puberty, after which the gland is slowly replaced by … Read more

Thyroid Gland- Definition, Structure, Hormones, Functions, Disorders

Thyroid Gland Structure

What is Thyroid Gland? Thyroid Gland Definition The thyroid gland is an endocrine gland that occurs in the neck and is essential for iodine metabolism and secretion of thyroid hormones. The gland is small and highly vascular, like most endocrine glands. It occurs in the neck between the 5th, 6th, and 7th cervical vertebrae. The development of the gland and secretion of thyroid hormones is regulated by the anterior pituitary, which in turn is regulated by the hypothalamus. The thyroid … Read more