Week-wise timeline of pregnancy (Week 1 to Week 40)

Week by week pregnancy (Baby & body development with tips)

Last Updated on May 30, 2020 by Sagar Aryal

Disclaimer: The information presented on the website is for academic, study, and general information purposes only. The information and tips presented on the website must not be used for the purpose of medical advice or diagnosis or treatment. If you are not feeling well, please consult with your physician or doctor or qualified health care providers.

Pregnancy is a period that begins from the first day of the last menstrual cycle and ends with the birth of the baby. This period is also termed intrauterine life. Because the exact time of conception is difficult to determine, the due date for pregnancy is determined from the last menstrual cycle before pregnancy. Intrauterine life can be divided into three stages:

  1. The germinal stage (1-2 weeks)
  2. The embryonic stage (2-8 weeks)
  3. The fetal stage (8-40 weeks)

Week-wise timeline of pregnancy (Week 1 to Week 40)

Image Source: Free Pik, created with bioredner.com

The description of fetus development, changes in the mothers’ body with some tips to be followed during pregnancy is given below:

1 week pregnant

Embryonic Development

  • The first week of pregnancy begins immediately after conception where sperm enters an ovum which might occur before or after the second maturation division of the ovum.
  • About 24-36 hours after fertilization, the fertilized egg undergoes multiple mitotic divisions called cleavage, to form a 16-celled stage called the morula.
  • As cell division continues, a cavity forms within the cell mass. The cells also become smaller and arranged in the form of a single-layered hollow ball or sphere called a process called blastulation.
  • In the meantime, the embryo takes on a journey to reach the uterus from the fallopian tube.
  • By the end of the first week, the blastocyte continues to divide while passing through the fallopian tube. The fertilized egg at this stage is called an embryo.

Body changes/ Signs of pregnancy

  • During the first week of the pregnancy, the endometrium layer of the uterus thickens in order to make it ready for the implantation of the fertilized egg.
  • Besides, other signs like weakness and dizziness might also occur during the first week as a result of hormonal changes occurring in the body.
  • With the knowledge of pregnancy, some emotional changes might also appear in the mother-to-be.

Tips

  • A visit to a gynecologist or an obstetrician is recommended with the announcement of pregnancy in order to learn about the necessary changes in lifestyle to ensure a healthy pregnancy and baby.
  • The mother-to-be should also be extra careful during the first few weeks of pregnancy as chances of miscarriage might be high at this stage.

2 weeks pregnant

Embryonic Development

  • The major event during the second week of pregnancy is the implantation of an embryo onto the endometrium of the uterus.
  • Just before implantation, the blastocyte breaks out it’s outer protective covering to ensure the exchange of hormones between embryo and endometrium to help the blastocyte attach.
  • As the blastocyte attaches to the uterine wall, it develops small finger-like projections called villi. Utilizing villi the embryo is not only firmly anchored or implanted but also absorbs nutrients from the maternal uterine wall for its further development.
  • Meanwhile, the cervix (opening between the uterus and the birth canal) is sealed due to the thickening and collection of mucus.

Body Changes / Signs of pregnancy

  • As implantation is complete, the mother might realize the missed period, which is the most important sign of pregnancy.
  • Because of the breaking of the outer layer, spotting (slight bleeding) might occur during implantation.
  • Discomfort might occur as the body tries to get used to the changes in the hormones.

Tips

  • Because implantation is a susceptible stage to ensure pregnancy, mothers should have a proper and nutritious diet which includes warm cooked food and vegetables like carrot and sweet potato.
  • Maintaining an active lifestyle with pregnancy-tailored yoga might also be useful to ensure implantation.
  • In the case of excessive and painful bleeding, it is imperative to discuss it with the doctor.

3 weeks pregnant

Embryo Development

  • The third week of pregnancy indicates the beginning of the embryonic stage of the pregnancy.
  • The process of gastrulation, involving the rapid but coordinated movement of cells from the surface to the interior of the embryo, starts in the thirds week of pregnancy.
  • Gastrulation results in the formation of three germ layers in humans. Each of these layers later forms different tissues and organs in the body.
  • Following gastrulation, the ectoderm (outer layer) forms the epithelial or nervous tissue. A neural plate is formed during this process which forms the basis for the central nervous system in the baby.
  • The heart is the first functional organ formed in the embryo, which also begins in the third week.
  • The development of the embryo from gastrulation to organogenesis initiates in the third week of pregnancy.

Body Changes/ Signs of Pregnancy

  • The often seen signs in the first few weeks of pregnancy are mood swings and being forgetful, which are also a result of changes in hormones.
  • Owing to the increased levels of progesterone in the body, size, and tenderness of breasts might fluctuate in the mother.
  • The presence of the pregnancy hormone, hCG occurs with the initiation of the third week. This hormone doubles every 48 hours and is responsible for all the positive results in home pregnancy kits.
  • Bloating and nausea might also be observed.

Tips

  • Mothers can take home pregnancy tests
  • Regular intake of prenatal vitamin with folic acid is advised in the first stage of pregnancy.
  • Pregnancy diet avoiding caffeine, alcohol, and gluten is to be followed with about eight glasses of water every day.

4 weeks pregnant

Embryonic Development

  • By the fourth week, the embryo divides into two layers; the outer epiblast that forms the entire body of the baby and the hypoblast, which is a temporary layer that forms a yolk sac for the nourishment of the baby.
  • Vasculogenesis (formation of the circulatory system), the formation of limbs, beginning of digestive and respiratory system occurs with the fourth week of pregnancy.
  • The organs formed up to this week are prone to bodily defects in the first trimester of the pregnancy.
  • As the embryo divides, the placenta is formed which delivers nutrients, oxygen, and water to the baby from the mother throughout the pregnancy.
  • By the end of the fourth week (one month), the size of the baby reaches about 1/4th inch in length.

Body changes/ Signs of Pregnancy

  • At four weeks pregnant, mild cramping is frequent in mothers as a result of embryo division and implantation.
  • The breasts might become more sore and tender as the pregnancy continues.
  • Morning sickness is observed in most of the women (about 50-90 percent) as a result of hormonal change.

Tips

  • Even though mild cramping is common by the fourth week, in the case of severe cramping, consultation with the doctor is a must.
  • The consumption of folic acid should be continued as it prevents different congenital disabilities.
  • Mothers-to-be should opt for loose-fitting and comfortable clothing.

5 weeks pregnant

Embryonic Development

  • In the fifth week, the tiny heart tube of the baby starts to beat for the first time. The heart tube at this point beats at a rate of 65 times in a minute.
  • Three distinct germ layers form in the fifth layer of the pregnancy. The ectoderm creates the nervous system, outer and inner ear, eyes, and connective tissues. The endoderm forms the internal organs like the lungs, intestines, and bladder. The mesoderm forms the muscles, bones, kidney, and reproductive organs.
  • The size of the head of the embryo grows significantly this week. This is because of the formation of the brain and the spinal cord from the neural plate.
  • In the fifth week, the umbilical cold is formed, which provides the blood supply to the baby from the mother.

Body changes/ Signs of Pregnancy

  • Aching breasts are considered the most critical signs of the fifth week of pregnancy.
  • Uneasiness and morning sickness might be the worst of all in the fifth week.
  • As a result of the increase in the size of the baby, the kidneys of the mother might expand. The expansion of the kidney might increase pressure on the urinary bladder, resulting in frequent urination.
  • Similarly, the uterus and other ligaments associated with the uterus might also expand. This might result in cramping.

Tips

  • Some mothers might not observe the common symptoms of pregnancy up to the fifth month, which is entirely okay.
  • In the case of consistent spotting until the fifth week, it is better to consult with a doctor.
  • It is recommended to gain wait up to 25 pounds/ 12 kgs- 40pounds/ 18 kgs depending on the BMI of the mother.

6 weeks pregnant

Embryonic Development

  • The size of the baby at the sixth week reaches that of sweet pea (half of an inch). The size grows the size thrice as the beginning of the week.
  • The heart tube of the baby begins beating in a regular rhythm.
  • The brain hemisphere of the baby starts to form, which can be detected as brain waves.
  • A primitive face is formed with dark circles for eyes, and other faint structures are built.
  • By the sixth week, baby heart heat increases to about 150 times in a minute, and the heartbeat is detectable at this stage.
  • The baby starts to move the paddle-like limbs, which might be detected through an ultrasound.
  • Folds on the sides of the head start to develop to form ears.

Body changes/ Signs of Pregnancy

  • As the pregnancy continues, gas and bloating become more intense. In the absence of food intake, bloating, and nausea might become severe.
  • Fatigue and weakness also continue to be more extreme.
  • Morning sickness becomes more frequent and might occur at any time of the day.
  • Increased blood flow might result in the formation of red and rosy skin.
  • As a result of reduced digestion of food, heartburn might follow in the sixth week of pregnancy.

Tips

  • It is recommended to continue the periodic visit to the doctor as the pregnancy continues.
  • As the size of the baby increases, the mother should keep an appropriate diet with nutrients required for the baby.

7 weeks pregnant

Embryonic Development

  • The brain of the baby becomes more complex as the nerve cells start to grow at a rate of 10,000 neurons per minute.
  • The baby might begin to move slowly, even though the movement is not detectable by the mother.
  • The size of the baby also increases at a high rate reaching double its’ size in the sixth week.
  • Teeth and palate in the digestive system begin to appear by the seventh month.

Body changes/ Signs of Pregnancy

  • The mother might develop food cravings as well as aversions to some kinds of food might also develop.
  • Similarly, owing to the increase in certain hormones in the body, acne and other skin-related diseases might be seen in the mother.
  • Mood swings and emotional distress might appear in the mother while dealing with pregnancy.
  • As the size of uterus doubles, urination becomes way more frequent with some difficulty while peeing.

Tips

  • The mother should be extra careful in the diet while keeping complete abstinence from smoking and drinking.
  • Food should be taken regularly, and the stomach shouldn’t be kept empty. Light, nutritious snacks are highly recommended.
  • In order to prevent the drop in the blood sugar, an appropriate amount of protein and carbohydrate-rich food should be added to the diet.
  • Because the baby is highly susceptible to anything that might hinder the growth, a proper consultant should be done with the doctor.

8 weeks pregnant

Embryonic Development

  • The streak of growth of the baby continues throughout the eight weeks. The growth reaches about a millimeter a day.
  • More delicate facial features like nose and ears become more distinct. Eyelids begin forming for the first this week.
  • Webbed toes and fingers appear in the limbs as the baby starts swimming around in the womb.
  • The heart of the baby becomes more robust by the day.
  • The tail of the body disappears by the eighth wee.
  • At the end of the eighth week, the embryo is now called a fetus and this week also marks the end of the embryonic stage.

Body changes/Signs of Pregnancy

  • The blood pressure in the mother starts to increase as the body produces blood both for the mother and the baby.
  • The mother develops a heightened sense of smell which might even add to nausea and uneasiness.
  • As the ligaments and muscles in the stomach begin to stretch with the expanding uterus, cramping is frequent by the eighth week.
  • With the increased anxieties, most women (about 50%) might also start getting weird dreams.

Tips

  • Mothers should opt for a more comfortable bra as it prevents shagging and also reduces the uneasiness to some extent.
  • Slight exercises and yoga are also recommended to manage a proper posture and normal functioning of the body.

9 weeks pregnant

Fetus Development

  • The ninth week is vital as the reproductive system starts to form along with other organs like the gall bladder and the pancreas. But it is difficult to determine the sex of the baby at this point.
  • The size of the baby at this point is half the length of the body and is more erect as the neck is more developed.
  • The fingers grow longer as the tip becomes broader where later nails are formed.
  • The cartilage in the baby is slowly replaced with bones as the growth continues.

Body changes/ Signs of Pregnancy

  • The mother might realize the thickening of the waistline as the uterus grows.
  • The weight gain might not be that significant with the morning sickness and aversions to different food.
  • Headache becomes usual with the lack of sleep, change in diet, and hormonal changes.
  • As the process of digestion is slowed, mothers might suffer from constipation.

Tips

  • Because the bones are beginning to form in the baby, the mother is recommended to take some supplements, including calcium.
  • By the ninth week, it is wise to perform several tests for some abnormalities including STDs, blood count, hormone level, and urine test to identify UTI, if present.

10 weeks pregnant

Fetal Development

  • In the tenth week, the fetus starts resembling the baby as the features become more distinct.
  • The limbs go on increasing and can be bent at the elbows and the knees.
  • Baby starts moving more often with a slight movement of the fists and mouth.
  • The webbed hands and feet separate into distinct fingers and toes.
  • The kidneys of the baby start working and produce urine.
  • The development of the brain reaches new heights with the formation of 250,000 neurons per minute.
  • As the baby reaches a more developed stage, the risk of miscarriage decreases.

Body Changes/ Signs of pregnancy

  • The size of the breasts grows significantly as the mammary glands get ready to produce milk.
  • Some veins might be visible in different parts of the body as the amount of blood increases in the body.
  • A more transparent and odorless vaginal discharge might be seen by the tenth week, which has antibacterial properties.

Tips

  • It is advised to take blood tests for genetic testing. It allows the detection of signs related to the risk of Down’s syndrome, Edward Syndrome, among other chromosomal abnormalities.
  • Besides, other blood tests to determine the blood type and whether its’ Rh-positive or not can be performed on the mother.
  • Proper clothing should be worn as the belly might be increasing slightly by the tenth week.

11 weeks pregnant

Fetal Development

  • The external genitalia of the baby begins to form this week.
  • The head of the baby remains proportionally large, which becomes more balanced in the coming weeks.
  • The baby can now inhale and exhale through the nose. The amniotic fluid might be inhaled, which helps in the development of the lungs in the baby.
  • By this week, the sounds of the movement of the baby in the uterus can be heard via the stethoscope.
  • The tooth buds, taste buds, and nail beds begin forming in the eleventh week.

Body changes/ Signs of Pregnancy

  • In addition to abdominal cramping, leg cramps might also begin by this week. This happens mostly at night, which interferes with sleep.
  • Skin darkening is another change that occurs in the mother under the belly. This is mostly temporary, but it can also last for some time even after delivery.
  • The vaginal discharge continues through this week and the rest of the pregnancy.
  • Because the hormonal levels are not yet stable, mood swings, nausea, and other issues persist to this week.

Tips

  • Seeing the dentist once every ten months is advised as problems like gum swelling and bleeding might occur due to increased blood volume.
  • It is also wise to gain some weight to keep up the energy and health of the baby by eating a healthy and balanced diet.

12 weeks pregnant

Fetal Development

  • This week marks the end of the first trimester of the pregnancy and the chances of miscarriage after this week decreases significantly.
  • In a fetus at the twelfth week, most of the essential organs are all formed. These organs now keep on growing until pregnancy.
  • The circulatory and urinary system of the baby is functional at this stage, and even the liver starts producing bile.
  • The baby also moves quite a bit while opening and closing the fists and the mouth.
  • At the end of this week and the first trimester, the baby grows to about 4 inches and weighs about 1 ounce/ 28grams.
  • The first trimester is defined by the differentiation of tissues, and the formation of organs and the baby might even develop some reflexes.

Body Changes/ Signs of Pregnancy

  • By the end of this week, the hormones start to balance, which decreases nausea and bloating.
  • However, as the blood pressure increases, dizziness and uneasiness might continue for some time more.
  • Headaches become intense at the end of this week, which might be due to dehydration, lack of sleep, and anxiety.
  • The energy level in mothers tends to increase for the next few months as the hormones come to a balance.

Tips

  • If morning sickness continues even after the first trimester or in the case of vaginal discharge with blood, it is important to consult with the doctor.
  • Mothers should keep calm and try to get as much rest as possible as pregnancy continues.

13 weeks pregnant

Fetal Development

  • As the pregnancy enters the second trimester, the baby’s body starts growing more as compared to the head so balance the proportion. The head at this occupies about 1/3rd of the total body length.
  • The facial features become more distinct as the eyes move from the sides to the middle of the face. Meanwhile, the ears also move from the neck to the sides of the face.
  • Wrists and ankle start forming in the limbs as the limbs continue to grow to reach a proper length.

Body changes/ Signs of Pregnancy

  • Blue veins become visible on the arms and neck as the blood flow increases with the increased volume.
  • The second trimester is known to be the most energetic and least symptomatic, so mothers tend to have a lot of energy as a result of increased diet.
  • In many women by the thirteenth week, an increased sex drive is observed. Light spotting might appear post-coital.
  • With this week, the pregnancy belly becomes more distinct, and the mothers tend to look more pregnant than before.

Tips

  • From this week onwards, mothers should aim to gain around half an ounce of weight each week,
  • As the belly becomes visible and increases considerably in size, it is crucial to opt for more comfortable clothing.
  • At the same time, appropriate supplements with advice from the doctor should be taken.

14 weeks pregnant

Fetal Development

  • The neck of the baby starts to grow longer as the chin becomes more prominent.
  • The unique fingerprints on the fingers develop by this week.
  • The baby begins to respond to external stimuli like poking.
  • The gonads form this week with the formation of the prostate in a boy and descend of ovaries into the pelvis in a girl.
  • The constant sucking reflex of the baby helps for the chubby and full cheeks.

Body changes/ Signs of Pregnancy

  • As the baby grows, the muscles and skin on the body of the mother also start to expand to accommodate the baby.
  • With more energy, appetite increases in mothers with up to 300 extra calories in a day.
  • The hair on the head starts thinning and becomes shinier throughout the second trimester.
  • Constipation might also occur owing to the increased appetite and other body changes.

Tips

  • To ease the discomfort, regular moderate exercise with the consumption of plenty of fluids and green vegetables is suggested.
  • Because there is a change in weight, mothers should be more careful while walking and sitting down.
  • Every few weeks, an overall health check-up should be done.

15 weeks pregnant

Fetal Development

  • By the fifteenth week, thin, peach-fuzz like hair begins forming on the back of the baby’s body. The hair, however, falls off as fat accumulates in the body to keep the baby warm.
  • The facial muscles start to move, which results in different expressions on the face of the baby.
  • The bones start to harden as the muscles grow thicker in some parts, and the legs begin to outgrow the arms as the growth continues.
  • The hair on the head and eyebrows are also seen in this week as the baby sucks on the thumb.
  • An average baby at this week measures 4.5 inches and weighs about 130 grams.

Body changes/ Signs of Pregnancy

  • Mothers can feel the uterus about 3-4 inches below the navel.
  • As the baby grows in size, the mother might feel a shortness of breath in crowded places.
  • Swollen gums, indigestion, and bloating continue as a result of pregnancy.
  • Nosebleeds might also be observed in some mothers due to increased blood pressure and sensitive nasal passages.

Tips

  • Sleeping on the left side is more appropriate as it is better for circulation.
  • Using pillows before and between the legs is suggested as it provides comfort against the possible cramping during the night.
  • If the parents are interested in conducting further tests like amniocentesis, they should consult with their doctor. Amniocentesis involves testing of the amniotic fluid for the detection of any genetic abnormalities.

16 weeks pregnant

Fetal Development

  • As the bones continue to harden, they stay quite flexible to ensure a more comfortable passage through the birth canal.
  • The umbilical is fully grown with a vein and two arteries that are surrounded by a thick substance, called Wharton’s jelly, which keeps the cord slippery.
  • In the case of a girl child, the ovaries begin to form follicles which later mature after birth.
  • The nervous system begins working, and the arms and legs can move freely.
  • The hairs on the body, on the head and the lashes keep on growing as the taste buds are formed.
  • At this point, the genitalia is completely formed, so it is possible to determine the sex of the baby through ultrasound.

Body changes/ Signs of Pregnancy

  • Mothers might begin to feel the baby move in the belly, a process called quickening. In the beginning, these movements feel like gas bubbles, but later are recognizable as they occur more often.
  • Because the uterus is shifting, mothers might not have to urinate as often as before.
  • Backaches might begin as the size of the baby becomes considerate as the amount of some hormones fluctuates through time.
  • By now, the size of the breasts increases by several cups as they get prepared for breastfeeding.
  • With the change in hormones, dry and itchy eyes are also pretty standard.

Tips

  • With backaches and leg cramps, the mother should consider some moderate exercise, and they should take rest to ease the pain.
  • At this stage, it is essential to maintain proper blood flow in the body to ensure that the blood pressure increase isn’t as much.

17 weeks pregnant

Fetal Development

  • The hair on the head, eyebrows, and eyelashes start filling in by this week.
  • The size of the baby also increases considerably reaching double its’ size in the last two weeks. The growth of the body and limbs is more than that of the head, so the body looks more proportionate.
  • Fat deposits under the skin of the baby that helps with thermoregulation as well as metabolism.
  • The placenta also grows with the body while providing nutrients, water, and oxygen while taking away carbon dioxide.
  • The circulatory system in the baby starts working as the lungs continue to exhale amniotic fluid.

Body changes/ Signs of Pregnancy

  • As a result of the increased blood flow, an increase in bodily fluids like vaginal discharge, mucus, and saliva, takes place.
  • Because the skin is stretching, it grows more sensitive to any stimuli on the skin, resulting in itchiness.
  • The weight gain begins to be more apparent with a more detectable increase in the appetite.
  • Stretch marks might begin to appear around the waistline due to the expanding of the muscles and skin to accommodate the baby.

Tips

  • As the body changes are different for every mother, it is important to enjoy the course of pregnancy instead of being paranoid all the time.
  • Mothers should be especially aware and calm while changing positions as it might result in dizziness.
  • In cases where one might feel dizzy, it is essential to sit down and lower the head with the intake of the appropriate amount of fluids.

18 weeks pregnant

Fetal Development

  • The growth of the baby starts to taper while the reflexes begin to show more prominently.
  • The taste buds develop enough to distinguish sweet from the bitter.
  • The retinas become sensitive in that he/she moves to shield against any bright light focused on the abdomen of the mother.
  • As the digestive system is working, the baby can swallow and in some cases, might even get hiccups.
  • The ear is also wholly formed, and the baby can hear the sound of blood rushing through the umbilical cord and the mothers’ heartbeat.

Body changes/ Signs of Pregnancy

  • The hands and feet tend to be swollen as the pregnancy continues with more frequent and severe leg cramps.
  • Sleeping might be a problem with the uneasiness and anxiousness.
  • Most mothers can fell the kicking of the baby beginning with this week.
  • Nosebleeds might become more frequent with increased blood pressure.
  • Heartbeat increase by about 40% as the heart has to pump the blood for both the mother and the baby.

Tips

  • Sleeping on the side than at the back is highly recommended as the baby might press against the veins in the back, causing a blockage in the blood flow resulting in dizziness or lightheadedness.
  • Because the baby can listen, parents should be careful to expose the baby to some pleasant sound or music.
  • Some doctors even recommend talking to the belly so that the baby recognizes the voice after birth.

19 weeks pregnant

Fetal Development

  • A greasy white covering, called vernix, forms around the baby that protects the baby and keeps him/her warm while dipped in the amniotic sac. This covering is removed before birth.
  • The skin of the baby becomes more transparent as it appears red as the blood vessels become visible from the skin.
  • At this stage, the baby develops all five senses in the brain.
  • The heartbeat of the baby becomes fast, double that of the mother.

Body changes/ Signs of Pregnancy

  • Besides the abdominal and leg cramps, the hips also begin to hurt due to the weight of the baby.
  • Diluted blood vessels result in the formation of red marks on the skin of the face, hands, and body.
  • Swelling of legs and ankles continues resulting in an additional discomfort.
  • As the baby causes, constant pressure on the veins, dizziness, and lack of energy is common in many mothers-to-be.

Tips

  • In order to deal with all the cramps, mothers can take the help of pillows that allow for a more relaxed sleep.
  • As the baby is growing, the mothers must take enough rest so that they don’t overtire themselves.
  • To maintain the proper working of the body, mothers should continue to do some light exercise and some yoga.

20 weeks pregnant

Fetal Development

  • The head of the baby becomes almost fit for the body at this point.
  • The baby keeps moving in the baby while twisting, turning, and even kicking.
  • The nails, hair, and eyebrows continue to sprout as the baby swims in the amniotic fluid for almost five months now.
  • By the end of the fifth month, the baby weighs about 300-500 grams and measures about 10 inches.
  • As the facial features become distinct, the baby begins making faces.
  • When a loud sound is directed towards the belly, the baby might be startled and might even jump while closing the ears.

Body changes/ Signs of Pregnancy

  • Vaginal discharge keeps on increasing until delivery, which is a result of the increased hormonal levels.
  • The digestive system is crowded by the baby, which affects the proper functioning of the digestive system resulting in constipation or heartburn.
  • A high energy surge might occur out of nowhere during this trimester which decreases considerably in the next trimester.
  • Slight swelling will continue until delivery, after which it should subside.
  • The expansion of the uterus puts pressure on the lungs, causing shortness of breath.

Tips

  • To ease the swelling, mothers should keep on drinking plenty of water.
  • If found gasping for air, pregnant women should immediately sit down and take deep breaths.
  • If the swelling and shortness of breath become very intense, couples should immediately visit the doctor.
  • Since week 20 is also the half-way point of pregnancy, you might want to do a more detailed check-up with your doctor to make sure the baby and the mother are excellent, and the course of pregnancy is healthy.

21 weeks pregnant

Fetal Development

  • The vernix on the body of the baby is still intact, keeping the baby warm in the amniotic fluid.
  • Meanwhile, the digestive system is growing at a rapid speed so much so that the baby might be able to absorb some nutrients through the intake of amniotic fluid. Most of the nutrients, however, still come from the placenta.
  • The digestive system also gets ready to produce the terry black excreta on the first diaper of the baby, called meconium.
  • The movement of the baby in the belly becomes more often and more intense.
  • Teeth buds for permanent teeth begin to form at the gums.

Body changes/ Signs of Pregnancy

  • Slight contractions, called Braxton Hicks contractions, begin this week as the uterus gets ready for delivery.
  • Breasts in many mothers might begin to leak as a result of the maturation of the breasts. This might occur in cases where the baby might be born prematurely.
  • Stretch marks become more intense as the skin is being pulled more often and becomes thinner. This might also occur as a result of weight gain.
  • Heartburn and indigestion continue for a few more weeks.

Tips

  • Avoid spicy and greasy food as that might be the cause of indigestion and heartburn. As the baby is acquiring all the nutrients from the mother, sticking to a strict pregnancy diet is the best.
  • The contractions beginning this week should go away while changing positions. If they don’t, couples should visit their doctor immediately.
  • There are various oils and creams available to deal with dry and itchy skin. If the itchiness becomes uncomfortable, mothers’ should invest in such creams and oils.
  • However, if the itchiness leads to rash, it is best to consult a doctor as it might be a sign of a pregnancy condition called Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy(PUPPP).

22 weeks pregnant

Fetal Development

  • As the baby’s muscles grow stronger, his/her movement in the belly becomes more prominent.
  • Baby might also be developing a sense of touch as might be moving his/her hands to the face and other parts of the body.
  • Meanwhile, the baby starts to sleep in cycles – 12-14 hours a day.
  • The eyelids and eyebrows of the baby are fully developed at this point.
  • The skin of the baby starts to become more opaque as the baby is collecting fat underneath the skin. The covering of vernix stays until enough fat is collected beneath the skin of the baby.

Body changes/ Signs of Pregnancy

  • As the size of the belly increases with the expanding uterus, the belly button comes out, resulting in an outie belly button.
  • By this week, many mothers might have issues of hair fall due to the increased hormone levels.
  • Backaches begin to be more severe from carrying the extra weight of the baby all the time.
  • Increased vaginal discharge and increased sex drive continue until this week as the blood flow increases around the uterus.

Tips

  • Even though mild swelling is common in pregnancy, sudden and extreme swelling might be a sign of another pregnancy-related complication, called preeclampsia.
  • In order to ease the backaches, mothers can use a heating pad, a prenatal massage, or can try sleeping with a pregnancy or a baby pillow.
  • It is common for mothers to fell out of breath while walking or standing for too long, so remember to take some time to catch your breath every once in a while.

23 weeks pregnant

Fetal Development

  • The skin of the baby still appears wrinkly as more fat is to be incorporated underneath the skin in the coming weeks.
  • Billions of nerve cells are developing in the baby’s head, which will later control all the functioning of the body.
  • By this week, the baby’s lungs start producing the surfactant that later allows the lungs to inflate and reach its maximum capacity. Although the baby is still breathing the amniotic fluid, the baby will be able to breathe air after the delivery.
  • Fine hairs on some parts of the body might appear darker at this stage.
  • The formation of nipples also begins this week.

Body changes/ Signs of Pregnancy

  • The contractions become more intense as the muscle in the belly is flexing in order to get ready for labor.
  • Additional skin changes like darkening of the skin around the nipples and formation of tiny bumps in several parts of the body also follow as the blood volume and flow keeps on increasing. These bumps are oil glands that prevent the breasts from drying out.
  • The body aches and constant uneasiness might cause an emotional toll on the mother, resulting in quick irritation, low temper, and anxiety.

Tips

  • As the mother moves closer to the birth of the baby, it is important to make her feel loved and looked after as the mother’s mood can directly affect the health of the baby.
  • Regular intake of enough water and healthy food that includes fresh vegetables and fruits is also equally important.
  • Kegel exercises are suggested to work out the pelvic floor to ease the labor process.
  • With the stretching of the skin, the sensitivity to the sunlight also increases, which might result in quick sunburn and redness.

24 weeks pregnant

Fetal Development

  • The end of this week marks the end of the sixth month of the pregnancy.
  • As more capillaries form in the baby, the skin of the baby begins to look pinker by the day.
  • Meanwhile, the ears of the baby are becoming fully developed with which the baby might be able to balance the body and move around more effectively.
  • After this week, if the baby is born prematurely, there are high chances of successful delivery.
  • By the end of this week, the baby measures about 12 inches and weighs about 2 pounds/ 900 grams.

Body changes/ Signs of Pregnancy

  • A dark line that runs through the belly, called linea nigra, might appear this week. This line is also the result of the stretch of the muscles in the pelvic region.
  • More stretch marks called tiger marks to continue to appear in the hips and legs as the pregnancy advances.
  • Aching in the legs might be a sign of dehydration if enough water is not ingested.
  • Little swelling of the face might begin this week with the weight gain, hormones, and blood flow.
  • The size of the breasts keeps on increasing as a result of enlarging milk glands and deposition of fat around the nipples.

Tips

  • It is wise to stay indoors for mothers to avoid dehydration and bore sunburn.
  • A leg condition, deep vein thrombosis, might be severe resulting from the clotting of blood in the vein causing pain and swelling. In such cases, it is imperative to visit the doctor.
  • The couple should get an appointment with the dentist this week to make sure that the gums and teeth are okay.

25 weeks pregnant

Fetal Development

  • As the bowel movement of the baby is developing fast, the meconium is formed in the large intestine of the baby which might either come out soon after birth or in some cases is released within the womb. In the latter case, the meconium should be extracted from the lungs.
  • The baby starts developing the white blood cells, which will later help with fighting against foreign invaders.
  • The deposition of fat continues as the senses tend to become more active, causing the baby to show human reflexes.
  • With the start of the seventh month, the amniotic fluid slowly begins to disappear.

Body changes/ Signs of Pregnancy

  • Hemorrhoids are the main issue this week. The clotting of blood in the veins causes pressure on the digestive system, which adds to constipation and dehydration.
  • As the belly keeps on expanding, sleeping becomes a real issue. Mothers might feel difficulty standing up and sitting down.
  • As the immunity of pregnant mothers grows weaker by the day, many mothers become subject to various infections which might develop complications in the pregnancy.
  • Rapid weight gain might also occur in mothers who haven’t gained much weight in the previous weeks.

Tips

  • Visits to the doctor might become more frequent as the weeks advance.
  • The beginning of the seventh month is essential to get a blood test to detect gestational diabetes.
  • The mother-to-be should altogether avoid raw food and unpasteurized milk to prevent from infection.

26 weeks pregnant

Fetal Development

  • This week marks the end of the second trimester with which comes some changes in the symptoms and signs of pregnancy.
  • The skin of the baby grows more opaque with some folds in different parts that later evolve into the skin.
  • The sleeping habits of the baby become more regular, and in many lucky mothers, the baby’s sleeping habits resemble that of the mother.
  • The growth of the baby continues as many of the organs begin to function thoroughly, resulting in the baby becoming more independent.
  • The heartbeat of the baby becomes more distinct and loud such that it can be easily heard by placing the ears on the bell of the mother.

Body changes/ Signs of Pregnancy

  • Pregnancy brain is another condition where the mothers tend to forget things which could either be due to the anxiety and restlessness or due to the hormonal imbalance.
  • The blood pressure of the mother tends to increase by the twenty-sixth week reaching up to 140/90 mm of Hg.
  • Braxton hicks contractions are more intense by the seventh month and also more frequent.
  • By this week, the uterus grows upwards and can be felt about 2-3 inches above the belly button.
  • Digestive system issues like heartburn and indigestion continue and might even become more intense.

Tips

  • It is wise to be tested for UTIs and other infections regularly just to minimize any complications that might arise during delivery.
  • As loose teeth are often associated with the second trimester of the pregnancy, the mother should be careful in the diet as well as the dentist’s visit.
  • Couples can even consult with the doctor about the lifestyle changes that might ease the symptoms

27 weeks pregnant

Fetal Development

  • The baby starts to suck on his/her thumb, which in turn assists in the strengthening of the jaw muscles and cheeks.
  • The baby starts to hiccup more often as the trachea is filled with the amniotic fluid, which is also the reason behind the absence of sound during such hiccups. The hiccups are also triggered by the involuntary movement of the diaphragm of the baby.
  • As the eyelids are completely formed, small cracks begin to appear, indicating that the baby might soon completely open his/her eyes.
  • The brain waves of the baby’s brains begin to resemble that of a newborn indicating a well-developed mind.

Body changes/ Signs of Pregnancy

  • A significant change this week is snissing. Snissing is the term used to describe the release of a small amount of urine while sneezing. As the baby puts a lot of pressure on the bladder, discharge of urine needs to be done more frequently.
  • Frequent hemorrhoids, skin, nails, and hair changes as they grow quickly but also become more brittle, follow as the mother reaches the third trimester of the pregnancy.
  • In the third trimester, both the mother and baby’s body tends to get ready for childbirth.

Tips

  • Mothers should be taking all the rest they can take while being extra cautious while doing even the simplest of daily activities like walking, standing up, and peeing.
  • Spouses of the pregnant mother should also show compassion and love, which tends to help the mother deal with emotional and physical distress.
  • If anything seems abnormal or hurts, more than it is supposed to, a visit to the doctor should be done as soon as possible.

28 weeks pregnant

Fetal Development

  • This week is significant for the development of the eyes of the baby. The baby for the first time is capable of opening and closing the eyelids this week.
  • Meanwhile, the irises of the baby also start to show color. This color might not be the final color of the eyes of the baby as the eye color tens to change after birth until six months or a year.
  • The brain waves of the baby also show rapid eye movement (REM), which indicates that the baby has been dreaming.
  • The baby’s skin accumulates fat at a higher rate that helps with the movement through the birth canal.
  • The lungs also move towards complete development as they develop branches.

Body changes/ Signs of pregnancy

  • The breasts of the mother produce the baby’s first food, yellowish liquid called colostrums this week. Some of the colostrums might even leak in the coming weeks.
  • The contractions, which act as practice labor, continue to be frequent and are accompanied by body aches and difficulty in breathing.
  • The distance from the pubic bone to the top of the uterus reaches about 26-30 centimeters which indicate that the baby is in the right position.

Tips

  • Doctors might advise the mother to keep a record of the kicks made by the baby, which helps to learn about the fetal movement and overall of the baby.
  • Couples can also go for an ultrasound at this point just to be sure about the position and development of the baby.

29 weeks pregnant

Fetal Development

  • As the eyes of the baby become more developed, they start to react to different sources and types of light through the uterine walls.
  • The arms and legs become more robust, and the kicks also become more intense.
  • Also, the size of the baby is increasing, which causes the uterus to be more cramped, and the movement of the baby becomes more often.
  • The part of the responsible for personality development and intelligence becomes complex and developed.
  • The baby starts to show a pattern in reaction towards different food, light, and sounds.

Body changes/ Signs of Pregnancy

  • There might be a loss of blood sugar level as the baby is continuously growing significantly and requires tons of energy.
  • By the eight months of pregnancy, there might be signs of premature labor. Menstrual-like cramps, back pain, tickling of amniotic fluid, and discharge of a watery pinkish or brownish discharge sometimes preceded by the passage of a thick, viscous mucus plug might occur.
  • As a result of the hormonal imbalance and the weight of the baby, mothers might experience a lack of control of balance. This results in clumsiness and forgetfulness in mothers.

Tips

  • With the beginning of the third trimester, mothers should keep a record of their weight, and mothers should also keep moving to keep the metabolism going.
  • As the pregnancy moves towards childbirth, mothers can research breastfeeding and meet with the consultant to learn more about taking care of the child.

30 weeks pregnant

Fetal Development

  • At this point, the baby grows at a high-speed gaining almost half a pound each week.
  • As the weight increases, more fat accumulates beneath the skin giving a more life-like structure to the skin.
  • Now that all the important organs of the body are developed, the baby begins paddling to protect and insulate the organs.
  • The movement of the baby in the belly becomes less frequent as the baby’s size increases and the space in the uterus becomes insufficient.
  • The brain at this stage appears wrinkly to accommodate all the brain tissue.

Body changes/ Signs of Pregnancy

  • Weight gain is the primary body change this week, gaining almost one pound each week.
  • As the baby grows in size, a pressure is created on the ribs and the abdomen.
  • Besides, general discomfort due to the cramps, backaches, and trouble sleeping becomes more intense by the day.
  • Swelling, shortness of breath, and heartburn continue throughout the thirtieth week.

Tips

  • In some cases, the membrane around the amniotic fluid, called the water bag, might break prematurely. This causes an increase in the chances of infection. In such cases, the couple should immediately meet with the doctor.
  • Supplements like vitamins and calcium should be continued throughout the third trimester with a consultation with the doctor.

31 weeks pregnant

Fetal Development

  • This week, the baby increases more in weigh than in height.
  • As the space in the uterus becomes limited, the baby takes on the fetal position, which he/she will stay till birth. In this position, the back is bent, the head is bowed, and the limbs are tucked and drawn up to the torso. Most of the time, it involves a complete flipping of the baby to reach the fetal position.
  • At the same time, the reproductive system sees great advances. In boys, the testes start its movement from the abdomen into the scrotum while in girls, the clitoris is almost entirely formed.

Body changes/ Signs of Pregnancy

  • The uterus at this stage occupies a large part of the abdomen.
  • Emotional distress becomes more intense, especially for the first-time mother, with the fast-approaching childbirth.
  • With the increase in the baby’s weight, sleeping becomes especially tricky. It becomes difficult to turn to sides as the increased weight creates an imbalance.
  • The leaking of the breasts becomes more frequent with the growth of the mammary glands.

Tips

  • Now is an excellent time to start breathing and relaxation exercises.
  • Light exercise throughout this month helps in speedy and secure delivery.
  • As the birth of the baby is near, it is wise to buy some baby gears and garments essential during delivery.

32 weeks pregnant

Fetal Development

  • All the important internal organs except the lungs are completely mature. A baby born at this stage would easily survive in the case of an early delivery.
  • A layer of fat is forming under your baby’s skin as the baby is practicing opening his eyes and breathing.
  • Some movement of the baby continues as the baby fills almost all the space in your uterus.
  • Even though a premature baby at this stage could live, the baby in the uterus has the advantage of developing lungs and becoming more competent after childbirth.

Body changes/ Signs of Pregnancy

  • Nipples appear darker as the week commences, which might be due to the hormonal change in the mother’s baby. One theory states that the darker color of the nipples aids the baby to find them during breastfeeding.
  • As the baby is turning around and moving in the uterus, the mother might feel a shortness of breath every once in a while. The weight of the baby might add to this phenomenon.
  • As a way of preparing for the delivery, the vaginal discharge increases significantly to lubricate the birth canal.

Tips

  • Try not to stress over the fact that your belly looks different than others as the size, width, and position of the belly depends on the size and location of the baby, your body type, and how much weight you’ve gained.
  • For maximum comfort, it is advised to drink plenty of fluids, move the legs up while sitting, lying on the left side to prevent pressure on the veins at the back, and wearing support stocking to ease the leg cramps.

33 weeks pregnant

Fetal Development

  • These few weeks are essential for the overall growth of the baby as the baby gains half of its total baby weight in the next weeks.
  • Meanwhile, the space in the uterus is getting more and more limited to the growth of the baby, which results in less movement in the belly.
  • The reflexes become coordinated, and the baby can open and close the eyes, turn his/her head, and can even grip on the toes.
  • As the baby tried to accommodate, hands and legs become crossed with knees and elbow bent.

Body changes/ Signs of Pregnancy

  • Because the metabolic activities in a pregnant woman are occurring at a very high rate at this point, overheating occurs in mother, which adds to the discomfort.
  • With the increase in the size of the baby, more pressure is created around the ribs and the lungs, which makes it really difficult to catch the breath.
  • As a result of the physiological changes and emotional stress, mothers tend to be clumsy and cannot concentrate very well.
  • Headaches are also frequent at this stage with the lack of oxygen, dehydration, and constant uneasiness.

Tips

  • It is safe to have sex with the partner at this point. However, it might be too uncomfortable. Instead, couples can try other ways to remain intimate through back and foot massages.
  • Overheating and headaches can be prevented by drinking plenty of water. Make sure to drink lukewarm water to avoid infections.

34 weeks pregnant

Fetal Development

  • The baby measures around 20 inches and weighs about 5 pounds.
  • Although the position of the baby is head-down, it might not be the final position.
  • All the organs except the lungs are entirely mature while the skin still looks pink due to a large number of capillaries on the skin.
  • Fingernails are formed at the ends of the fingers, but toenails are not yet developed.
  • The movement of the baby is almost none due to the tight fit.

Body changes/ Sign of Pregnancy

  • Pelvic aches begin this week as the uterus contracts as practice for labor.
  • The uterus is pushed hard against the lower rib cage, which causes the rib cage to be sore, which adds to the difficulty.
  • The navel is out as the abdomen grows larger.
  • The lack of sleep, accumulation of fluid and hormonal imbalance might cause blurry vision in many women which are accompanied by swelling, sudden weight gain, and headaches.

Tips

  • Mothers-to-be can read up on ways to make labor easier while also practicing breastfeeding.
  • Try to take your time to get used to having a baby and taking care of one. At the same time, don’t forget to take care of yourself and keep on drinking warm fluids.
  • As the baby can hear pretty clearly, mothers can read stories to the belly to develop a bond with the child.

35 weeks pregnant

Fetal Development

  • The vernix is present throughout the body of the baby to ensure that the baby is completely moisturized during birth. This coating is unusually thick around the groin, under the arms, and behind the ears.
  • About 95% of the babies are in the fetal position at this point. However, some babies might still be in a position where the butt and the legs come out first, which is called the breech position. In the latter case, C-section has to be performed.
  • The baby’s lungs are matured while he/she is still collecting fat underneath the skin.
  • The skin starts to look fuller with fewer wrinkles than before.

Body changes/ Signs of Pregnancy

  • The Braxton hicks contractions become more painful and more often. These contractions last for a shorter period and go away as you change position.
  • The ligaments and bones in the pelvic region begin loosening a little bit to ease the process of delivery.
  • At the same time, there is a constant pain in the pelvic region and the region around the legs.
  • The urge to pee becomes more and more frequent with the increased pressure on the bladder.

Tips

  • Make sure to collect all the necessary items for delivery, from the diaper, baby clothes to warm socks and for yourself.
  • When at home, mothers should wear comfortable clothes and try to move around a bit as it helps with the ease of delivery.

36 weeks pregnant

Fetal Development

  • The collection of fat continues with most of it collected around the face. About 15% of the total weight of the baby is due to the fat, which keeps the baby warm and helps in the metabolism once the baby is out.
  • At the same time, the sucking muscles of the baby have also developed quite well.
  • The skin of the baby becomes smooth and pink.
  • The baby by this week moves down to the pelvis to get ready for the delivery.

Body changes/ Signs of Pregnancy

  • As the baby descends into the pelvis, the lungs will have more space, and mothers will be able to breathe more deeply.
  • Pelvic discomfort, however, increases as the baby moves down.
  • Sitting, standing, and even sleeping might seem very difficult for some mothers with the baby’s weight and constant pressure at the back.
  • Few changes might occur in the vaginal region with an increase in the vaginal discharge, appearance of blood, or mucus-like discharge which could be the mucus plug.

Tips

  • If vaginal discharge increases at an abnormally high rate, it could be the amniotic fluid that should be consulted with the doctor.
  • If blood appears in the vagina, it could be a sign of preterm labor.
  • If the mucus plug appears this week, it could mean that the labor is near.

37 weeks pregnant

Fetal Development

  • The umbilical cord begins passing antibodies to the baby in preparation for delivery. These antibodies protect the baby against different bacteria exposed to him/her during birth.
  • As the senses of the baby are developing, the eyesight also becomes better. The color of the eyes of the baby is mostly blue at this point which changes over time after the delivery.
  • The baby looks more and more round as the baby becomes compact to fit within the uterus.
  • The bones of the baby become hardened, and the baby gains some weight.

Body changes/ Signs of Pregnancy

  • As the time for delivery is coming near, a couple of signs of labor might also be seen in 37 weeks, pregnant mothers.
  • Some mothers might feel nauseous as the labor is near.
  • Diarrhea is another one of the signs indicating that labor might happen in a couple of weeks.
  • The contractions begin to have more frequently and also hurt more as compared to last week.
  • New stretch marks appear around the abdomen and in the pelvic region as the skin and muscles are expanding.

Tips

  • If you are still consuming caffeine, it might be time to limit it. It adds to the loss of sleep and anxiety.
  • Mothers can read up on things to ease labor and engage in easy light exercise.
  • Spending time with the spouse is another trick that can provide a calmness to the mothers.

38 weeks pregnant

Fetal Development

  • Childbirth is possible in any of these next few weeks, including the week 38.
  • The baby’s brain keeps on growing while regulating breathing, digestion, and circulation.
  • Some babies might change positions, if they haven’t already, resulting in the fetal position.
  • The hair at the back, vernix at some parts of the baby might begin to disappear.
  • The growth of the baby slows down from this week onwards while the fat accumulation continues.

Body changes/ Signs of Pregnancy

  • Anxiety reaches a high height this week, with the anticipation of labor and distress regarding the childbirth.
  • The swelling of legs and feet might increase and look more prominent.
  • The stretching of the belly reaches as far it goes, which increases itchiness around the belly and the pelvic region.

Tips

  • Keep on taking a short walk around the house and keep drinking plenty of water.
  • Mothers going through anxiety about childbirth can talk to the doctor and take rest to get ready for the childbirth.
  • Couples should visit the doctor to get checked for dilation of the cervix to determine if dilation needs to be induced medically.

39 weeks pregnant

Fetal Development

  • The baby, by this week, reaches his/her birth weight, which on average measures about 18-22 inches and weighs about 6-9 pounds.
  • As the baby gets ready for birth, the head moves down towards the pelvis (if the baby is in the fetal position).
  • Enough fat is accumulated underneath the skin of the baby while the placenta supplies the nutrients and antibodies to the baby.
  • As the arm and legs become stronger, the toenails and fingernails completely develop.

Body changes/ Signs of Pregnancy

  • As the head of the baby moves down to the pelvis, it becomes easier for the mother to breathe.
  • However, because the baby has reached the pelvic region, everything around the belly becomes uncomfortable.
  • As a result of the baby’s movement in the pelvis region, sharp sensations result in the vagina and the crotch.
  • Bloody show is a major sign of labor, which results in the release of blood and the mucus plug.
  • Some mothers might even tend to clean and have a high surge of energy which is also termed as the urge to nest.

Tips

  • Mothers can opt for different natural ways to induce labor. Walking around the house, acupuncture, and having sex might add to the dilation of the cervix.
  • Some false labor might also appear in this week. It is wise to learn about these. Some of the false signs include labor pain concentrated in the lower abdominal region, and these might go away by drinking water, eating, or lying down.

40 weeks pregnant

Fetal Development

  • This is the last week of pregnancy, and the baby is most chilling in the uterus.
  • As the baby moves down the pelvis, some temporary changes like puffy eyes and misshapen heads might be observed. This is due to the pressure during birth.
  • Boys tend to weigh a little more than the girls.
  • The hair and the vernix fall out entirely except some folds present at the back of the ear and in the groin area.
  • In order to determine the overall health of the baby, an average Apgar score is calculated. This core takes into account some factors like activity and muscle tone, pulse (heart rate), grimace response (medically known as “reflex irritability”), appearance (skin coloration), and respiration (breathing rate and effort).

Body changes/ Signs of Pregnancy

  • Many women might be very anxious regarding labor and its signs.
  • Contractions begin to be more intense and continuous, ultimately leading to labor pain.
  • A lot of mothers in the last week experience lack of sleep which adds to the fatigue they feel as a result of the pelvic pain.
  • Cramps in and around the abdomen region and the back begin from this week and continue throughout the week.
  • The contraction/labour might last for about 12 hours, and the childbirth occurs once the sufficient dilation (10 centimeters) is reached, the birth of the child occurs.

Tips

  • If in labor, try not to eat anything as it may lead to nausea.
  • Only about 5% of babies are born on the due date, so keep calm and stop stressing.

References

  • Hall JE and Guyton AC. (2011) Textbook of Medical Physiology. Twelfth Edition. Elsevier Saunders.
  • Waugh A and Grant A. (2004) Anatomy and Physiology. Ninth Edition. Churchill Livingstone.
  • Marieb EN and Hoehn K. (2013) Human Anatomy and Physiology. Ninth Edition. Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Kotpal RL(2010). Modern Textbook of Zoology Vertebrates (Animal Diversity – ii). Rastogi Publications.
  • https://www.webmd.com/baby/guide/your-pregnancy-week-by-week-weeks-35-40#2-4
  • https://www.parents.com/pregnancy/week-by-week/baby-development/?slide=slide_f957d90d-39d2-45b3-9659-9e6657b04cfc#slide_f957d90d-39d2-45b3-9659-9e6657b04cfc
  • https://www.thebump.com/topics/pregnancy
  • https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/fasd/documents/fasdbrochure_final.pdf
  • https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/7247-fetal-development-stages-of-growth
  • https://opentextbc.ca/anatomyandphysiology/chapter/28-4-maternal-changes-during-pregnancy-labor-and-birth/

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