Types of Mutations

Types of Mutations

The mutation is a process that produces a gene or chromosome that differs from the wild type (arbitrary standard for what “normal” is for an organism). The mutation may result due to changes either on the gene or the chromosome itself. Thus, broadly mutation maybe: Gene mutation where the allele of a gene changes. Chromosome mutation where segments of chromosomes, …

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Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Chromosomes

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Chromosomes

The genome of an organism encompasses all of the genes of that organism. Gene is a distinct sequence of nucleotides forming part of a chromosome, the order of which determines the order of monomers in a polypeptide or nucleic acid molecule. Thus a protein-coding gene is defined as a region of DNA that encodes a single polypeptide or a set …

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Mendel’s Experiment and Laws

Mendel's Experiment

In the 1860’s, an Austrian monk named Gregor Mendel introduced a new theory of inheritance based on his experimental work with pea plants. Mendel believed that heredity is the result of discrete units of inheritance, and every single unit (or gene) was independent in its actions in an individual’s genome. According to this Mendelian concept, inheritance of a trait depended on …

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Chromosome- Structure, Types and Functions

Chromosome- Structure, Types and Functions

In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure. Chromosomes were first described by Strasburger (1815), and the term ‘chromosome’ was first used by Waldeyer in 1888. They appear as rod shaped dark stained …

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Mutation- Causes, Mechanisms, Agents and Significance

Mutation- Causes, Mechanisms, Agents and Significance

Mutation is a process that produces a gene or chromosome that differs from the wild type (arbitrary standard for what “normal” is for an organism). It is most commonly defined as a spontaneous permanent change in a gene or chromosome which usually produces a detectable effect in the organism concerned and is transmitted to the offsprings. Mutated gene or chromosome …

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Characteristic of Genetic Code

Characteristic of Genetic Code

The genetic code is the set of rules by which a linear sequence of nucleotides specifies the linear sequence of a polypeptide. That is, they specify how the nucleotide sequence of an mRNA is translated into the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide. Thus, the relationship between the nucleotide sequence of the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of the …

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