Chromosomes- Abnormalities and Disorders

Chromosomes- Abnormalities and Disorders

Chromosomes refer to any of the rod-shaped or threadlike DNA-containing structures of cellular organisms that are located in the nucleus of eukaryotes, are usually ring-shaped in prokaryotes (such as bacteria), and contain all or most of the genes of the organism. Simply put, it is a strand of DNA that is encoded with genes. Chromosomes are important because they contain the entire (or …

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Mendel’s Experiment and Laws

Mendel's Experiment

In the 1860’s, an Austrian monk named Gregor Mendel introduced a new theory of inheritance based on his experimental work with pea plants. Mendel believed that heredity is the result of discrete units of inheritance, and every single unit (or gene) was independent in its actions in an individual’s genome. According to this Mendelian concept, inheritance of a trait depended on …

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Chromosome- Structure, Types and Functions

Chromosome- Structure, Types and Functions

In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure. Chromosomes were first described by Strasburger (1815), and the term ‘chromosome’ was first used by Waldeyer in 1888. They appear as rod shaped dark stained …

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Nitrogen Cycle- Steps and Significance

Nitrogen Cycle- Steps and Significance

The movement of nitrogen between the atmosphere, biosphere, and geosphere in different forms is called the nitrogen cycle and is one of the major biogeochemical cycles.  It may also be considered as the movement of nitrogen through the food chain from simple inorganic compounds, mainly ammonia, to complex organic compounds. This complex cycle involves bacteria, plants, and animals. All organisms can convert ammonia (NH3) to organic …

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33 Difference between enzymes and hormones (enzymes vs hormones)

Differences between Enzymes and Hormones

Differences between Enzymes and Hormones Enzymes and hormones are bio-genic substances present in all living organisms whose function, formation, secretion and purpose varies in both plants and animals. An enzyme is a highly selective catalyst that greatly accelerates both the rate and specificity of metabolic reactions. A hormone, on the other hand, is a chemical released by a cell or a …

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27 Differences between Arteries and Veins (Arteries vs Veins)

Differences between Arteries and Veins

Differences between Arteries and Veins Arteries and veins are two of the body’s main type of blood vessels through which blood flow in the body. The arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart while the veins carry deoxygenated blood from the tissue capillaries back towards the heart. Image Source: West Florida Vein Center and Wapcaplet, Yaddah. Here are some of the differences: …

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21 Difference between diarrhea and dysentery (diarrhea vs dysentery)

Differences between Diarrhea and Dysentery

Differences between Diarrhea and Dysentery Diarrhea and dysentery are two distinct medical conditions which are often used synonymously. However, both the terms and these clinical conditions have clear differences as follows: S.N. Character Diarrhea Dysentery 1.       Definition Diarrhea refers to a condition that involves the frequent passing of loose or watery stools (atleast 3 times a day). Dysentery is …

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29 Difference between exotoxins and endotoxins

Differences between Exotoxins and Endotoxins

Differences between Exotoxins and Endotoxins Toxins are small molecules, peptides, or proteins produced by living cells that are capable of causing diseases or structural damage when they come in contact or are absorbed by tissues. Toxins and enzymes play an important role in the pathogenicity of pathogenic bacteria. Toxins may aid in invasiveness, damage cells, inhibit cellular processes, or trigger immune …

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32 Differences between Mitosis and Meiosis (Mitosis vs Meiosis)

Differences between Mitosis and Meiosis

Differences between Mitosis and Meiosis Here are some of the differences: S.N. Character Mitosis Meiosis 1.       Alternate Name Equational Division Reduction Division 2.       Discovered by Walther Flemming Oscar Hertwig 3.       Type of Cells Involved Somatic cells. Sex cells/germ cells or gametes. 4.       Type of Reproduction Asexual division Sexual division 5.       Mother Cells Can be either haploid or …

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47 Differences between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

Differences between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

Differences between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Here are some of the differences: S.N. Character Prokaryotes Eukaryotes 1. Term Origin Greek for “primitive nucleus” Greek for “true nucleus” 2. Definition Organisms made up of cell(s) that lack a cell nucleus or any membrane-encased organelles. Organisms made up of cells that possess a membrane-bound nucleus as well as membrane-bound organelles. 3. Major groups Bacteria, …

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