Glycolysis- Steps, ATP generation and Significance

Glycolysis- Steps, ATP generation and Significance

Fermentation and respiration are two major strategies for energy conservation in chemoorganotrophs. The glycolytic pathway is a major metabolic pathway for microbial fermentation which involves the catabolism of glucose into pyruvate. It is also called the Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas pathway for its major discoverers. Regardless of whether glucose is fermented or respired, it travels through this pathway thus it is referred to …

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29 Difference between exotoxins and endotoxins

Differences between Exotoxins and Endotoxins

Differences between Exotoxins and Endotoxins Toxins are small molecules, peptides, or proteins produced by living cells that are capable of causing diseases or structural damage when they come in contact or are absorbed by tissues. Toxins and enzymes play an important role in the pathogenicity of pathogenic bacteria. Toxins may aid in invasiveness, damage cells, inhibit cellular processes, or trigger immune …

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Protein Structure- Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary

Protein Structure- Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary

Four levels of hierarchy in protein conformation can be described. A. PRIMARY STRUCTURE PRIMARY STRUCTURE refers to the order of the amino acids in the peptide chain. 1. The free α-amino group, written to the left, is called the amino-terminal or N-terminal end. 2. The free α-carboxyl group, written to the right, is called the carboxyl-terminal or C-terminal end. B. …

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