New York City Agar

New York City Agar

Introduction NYC Agar Base medium was originally developed by Fauer, Weisburd and Wilson at the New York City Department of Health for selective isolation of pathogenic Neisseria species from clinical specimens. NYC medium, primarily designed for isolation of pathogenic Neisseria, also … Read more

Martin Lewis Agar

Martin Lewis Agar

Introduction Thayer-Martin Agar was developed in 1964 for the isolation of N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis. A further modification of these early formulations was developed to improve the isolation of pathogenic Neisseria sp. from specimens, which contained large amounts of … Read more

Modified Thayer Martin Agar

Modified Thayer Martin Agar

Thayer and Martin reported an improvement of the Chocolate Agar formulation that contained antimicrobics vancomycin, colistin and nystatin have been added to minimize overgrowth by contaminants, suppress the growth of saprophytic Neisseria sp., and enhance the growth of pathogenic Neisseria. … Read more

Heart Infusion Agar

Heart Infusion Agar

Fastidious organisms having exacting nutritional requirement can be cultivated on infusion media. Meat infusions were included in the first media used for the cultivation of bacteria. Huntoon prepared a medium using fresh beef heart and peptone which became known as … Read more

Egg Yolk Agar

Egg Yolk Agar

Egg Yolk Agar, modified is based on the original formula for Egg Yolk Agar developed by McClung and Toabe for the isolation and differentiation of organisms based on Lecithinase and lipase production and proteolytic activity. Image Source: Noura El-Ahmady El-Naggar, DOI: … Read more

CHROMagar (Rambach Agar)

CHROMagar (Rambach Agar)

The first chromogenic culture medium for detection of E. coli was invented and patented by Dr. A. Rambach in 1979. This technology is color-based differentiation method. It is based on soluble colorless molecules (called chromogens), composed of a substrate (targeting … Read more

Endo Agar

Endo Agar

Endo Agar was developed by Endo to differentiate gram-negative bacteria on the basis of lactose fermentation while inhibiting gram-positive bacteria. Inhibition of the later was achieved without the use of bile salts as was traditionally used. Endo was successful in … Read more

Hektoen Enteric Agar

Hektoen Enteric Agar

Hektoen Enteric Agar is a selective and differential medium designed to isolate and differentiate members of the species Salmonella and Shigella from other Enterobacteriaceae. The medium was introduced in 1968 by Sylvia King and William I. Metzger. They formulated HE … Read more

Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB) Agar

Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB) Agar

Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB) agar is a differential microbiological medium, which slightly inhibits the growth of Gram-positive bacteria and provides a color indicator distinguishing between organisms that ferment lactose (e.g.,  E. coli) and those that do not (e.g., Salmonella, Shigella). EMB agar was originally devised by Holt-Harris … Read more

Deoxycholate Citrate Agar (DCA)

Deoxycholate Citrate Agar (DCA)

Deoxycholate Citrate Agar is a modification of Leifson formula and is recommended for the isolation of Salmonella and Shigella spp. This medium is similar to deoxycholate agar in comparison but is moderately more selective for enteric pathogens owing to increased … Read more

Chocolate Agar

Chocolate Agar

Chocolate agar is essentially the same as blood agar except that during preparation the red blood cells are lysed when added to molten agar base. As a result, the cell lysis releases intracellular nutrients such as hemoglobin, hemin (“X” factor), … Read more

Campylobacter Blood Agar (CVA)

Campylobacter Blood Agar (CVA)

Campylobacter Blood Agar (CVA) is a selective medium used for the primary isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from stool specimens. Dekeyser et al. reported the isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from the feces of patients with diarrhea and acute gastroenteritis by using a filtration … Read more

Columbia Agar with 5% Sheep Blood

Columbia Agar with 5% Sheep Blood

Columbia Agar with 5% Sheep blood is highly nutritious general purpose medium for the isolation and cultivation of the non-fastidious and fastidious microorganisms from various clinical specimens and non-clinical specimens of public health importance.  Columbia Blood Agar was first described … Read more