29 Differences between Innate Immunity and Adaptive Immunity

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Last Updated on July 8, 2020 by Sagar Aryal

Differences between Innate Immunity and Adaptive Immunity

Differences between Innate Immunity and Adaptive Immunity

Some of the differences are:

S.N.

CharacteristicsInnate Immunity

Adaptive Immunity

1.SynonymsNonspecific, natural immunitySpecific, acquired immunity
2.DefinitionThe defense mechanisms that are non-antigen specific and immediately come into play on the antigen’s appearance in the body. The defense mechanism that is not always present but involve antigen-specific immune response.
3.Order of defenseIt is the first line of defense of immune system.It is the action against pathogens that are able to evade or overcome innate immune defenses. 
4.State at birthPresence since birth.Acquired during lifetime.
5.PresenceAlways present in the body itself.Developed only upon exposure to antigens.
6.InducibleNoYes
7.Cells involvedPhysical epithelial barriers, Phagocytic leukocyte, Dendritic cells, Natural killer (NK) cell, Mast cells etc.Killer CD8+ T-cells, Helper CD4+ T-cells, B-cells, Antigen presenting cells etc.
8.Molecules involvedCytokines, Complements ,Interferon, Acute phase proteins.Antibodies

 Cytokines

9.Fights againstFights any foreign invader and thus is non-specific.Ability to fight a specific infection.
10.Receptors involvedUses receptors that recognize conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as LPS, flagellin, nucleic acids.Uses recombined B- and T-cell receptors that recognize specific antigens on pathogens

 

11.Effector functionConstitutive effective functions encoded in the germline (inflammation, phagocytosis)Inducible effector functions (proliferation, activation, maturation, differentiation)
12.Response timeOccurs rapidly from minutes to hours.Occurs over days to weeks.
13.Immunological memoryDoes not confer memoryConfer  immunological memory
14.Directed againstInnate immunity is directed towards types of molecules.It is directed towards specific epitopes.
15.Subsequent exposureThe immune response does not alter on repeated exposure.Immune response improves with each successive exposure.
16.Types of immune responseTypes of adaptive immune responses: Inflammation, Complement mediated killing, Phagocytosis etc.Two types of adaptive immune responses: humoral immunity, mediated by antibodies produced by B lymphocytes, and cell-mediated immunity, mediated by T lymphocytes.
17.ChangeabilityMay vary between individuals but does not change over course of an individual lifetimeImmunity is generated by recombination of V, D, and J regions and further hypervariation thus may change.
18.DiversityLimitedDiverse
19.PotencyLimited and Lower potencyHigher potency
20.InheritanceInherited from parents Not inherited from parents 
21.Time spanOnce activated against a specific type of antigen, the immunity remains throughout the life.The span of developed immunity can be lifelong or short.
22.ComplexityInnate immune response is less complex.More complex than the innate immune response.
23.Anatomic and physiological barriersSkin, Mucous membranes, Temp, pH, chemicals, etc.Lymph nodes, spleen, mucosal associated lymphoid tissue.
24.Allergy or Hypersensitivity reactionNoneImmediate and Delay hypersensitivity
25.Complement system activation

 

Alternative and lectin pathwaysClassical pathway
26.Found inFound in nearly all forms of life.Found only in jawed vertebrates.
27.Factors causing immune evasionCaused by pathogenic virulence factor.

Often involves disabling the conserved pattern recognition used by innate system

Caused by mutation of the recognized antigen.
28.Functionsa) Recruiting immune cells to sites of infection

b) Activation of the complement cascade to identify antigens

c) Identification and removal of foreign substances present in organs, tissues, blood and lymph.

d) Activation of the adaptive immune system through antigen presentation.

e) Acting as a physical and chemical barrier to infectious agents.

a) Recognition of specific “non-self” antigens during the process of antigen presentation.

b) Generation of responses that are tailored to maximally eliminate specific pathogens or pathogen-infected cells.

c) Development of immunological memory, through memory B cells and memory T cells.

29.ExamplesWhite blood cells fighting bacteria, causing redness and swelling during a cut.Administration of Chickenpox vaccination such that an individual do not develop chickenpox as adaptive immunity forms immunological memory.

Differences between Innate Immunity and Adaptive Immunity

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